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Corporate Finance

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Corporate Finance ­FIN 622
VU
Lesson 30
INVENTORY MANAGEMENT
The following topics are being covered in this hand out.
Inventory cost ­ Stock out cost
Economic Order Point
Just in time (JIT)
Debtors Management
Credit Control Policy
Stock outs
The situation when a firm runs out of stock which results in shutdown of slow down of production / sales.
This approach is designed to minimize the risk of stock outs at all costs. Particularly in manufacturing
environment stocks-outs can have a disastrous effect on the production process.
There are two concepts associated with stock out cost. First one is maximum stock levels, which is defined
as the sum of reorder level and reorder quantity and from this (minimum usage x minimum lead time) is
subtracted.
This stock level is a signal to the management that there should not be additional investment in stocks
because that is not needed and will be a useless. In other words, any investment over and above this level is
loss incurring.
The second is the minimum level of stock or also known as buffer stock. This level refers to a warning to
the management that stock level is approaching to such a low level that could result in a stock cost. We
compute this stock level as under:
Buffer stock = reorder level ­ (average usage x average lead time)
In order to avoid stock out situation, a safety stock level should be procured and maintained.
Safety stock is the minimum inventory amount needed for an item, based on anticipated usage and expected
delivery time of materials.
This cushion guards against unpredicted surge in demand or delivery time.
Economic Order Point
Economic Order Point is the level of inventory that signals the time to place re-orders of materials using
economic order quantity amount. Safety stock is considered in the calculations.
We can calculate the EOP using the following formula:
EOP = SL + F S x EOQ x L
Where
S= Consumption per Period
L= Lead Time
F= Stock out Acceptance Factor
EOQ = Economic Order Quantity
Just In Time (JIT)
The idea explains that inventories are kept near zero level. This means that inventory is acquired in such
quantity on daily basis that can support the daily production level. Therefore, there's no inventory lying in
store room rather all the inventory acquired move to production hall.
The philosophy is to pull inventory through the production processes on as "as-needed" basis rather than
pushing inventory through the processes on an "as-produces basis". This requires extreme accurate
estimates and there no chance of an error. For example, there's a high probability of running out of stock
and that could be disastrous.
JIT does not necessarily mean zero inventory level. The objective is to minimize the inventories but to
increase the productivity, quality and flexibility.
Before considering JIT as inventory management model, one should consider the following factors:
·  JIT is possible only when vendors are located very close to business premises or production facility.
·  This means that lead time is around couple of hours.
·  Very sensitive issue. Greater probability of stock outs. May turn the overall benefits to losses.
·  May not be feasible for every business. Some business may maintain some inventory items on JIT
and others on EOQ etc.
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Corporate Finance ­FIN 622
VU
JIT & EOQ:
It might seem that JIT would be in a direct conflict with EOQ model. But certainly it is not the case. A JIT
system rejects the statement that ordering costs are necessarily fixed at the levels. JIT tries to push down all
the inventory related costs like ordering and set up on continuous basis.
By successfully reducing these ordering costs the firm is able to reduce the total cost. How close a company
comes to the JIT ideal depends on the type of production process and the nature of the supplier industries,
but it is a worthy objective for most companies.
Debtors Management
There are significant funds invested in accounts receivables and there must be some trade off between the
profitability and risk. The optimal level of investment should be based on the benefit resulting from a
specific level of investment in debtors. As you are well aware that investment in debtors influences the cash
operating cycle and therefore, debtors should be governed by a careful policy.
Extending credit to debtors is a matter to be analyzed carefully because it has two types of costs involved.
First, theirs is a chance of default of receiving payment and results in bad debts. Secondly, the amount to be
received from debtors is used to pay off creditors. If the amount is not received at the proper time then the
company has to settle creditors through loans and overdrafts, which carry a cost known as interest. The
company must have clear credit standards by defining the minimum quality of credit worthiness of debtors
that is acceptable to the firm.
Credit Control Policy:
The following section will shed light on credit control policy and its components.
a) Terms of sale
b) Credit analysis
c) Collection policy
Terms of sale refer to the conditions on which the company will sell its good to the customers on cash or
credit. The most important issues under these terms are the credit period and the discount level and
discount period.
In order to induce the debtors to settle their invoices at the earliest the company offers a discount or
reduction in the invoice amount. That discount is predominantly based on receiving the payment within a
very short period of time compared with normal credit period. For example, the normal terms representing
the period and discount are described as "3/10, net 45".
This means that the credit period is 10 days. The credit period is the length of time that is allowed to
debtors to pay off their bills. It will vary business to business and firm to firm. Normally this period is
between 30 to 60 days, however, 90 days credit is not very un-common. Credit period count runs from the
invoice date but can be the point of delivery of goods.
Length of credit period is influenced by several factors but the most important is the buyer's operating cycle
and inventory period. Before moving ahead, let's take up operating cycle concept.
Operating cycle can be divided into two parts:
1 ­ Inventory period: the period of time it takes to procure, produce and sell the inventory.
In our example - inventory acquisition date Jan 01, 06 to march 01, 2006 ­ 60 days is known as
inventory period.
2 ­ Accounts receivable period ­ the time to recover the sales.
In our example, March 01 to April 15 ­ 45 days period is termed as accounts receivable period.
It should be noted that by extending credit to buyer, we finance a portion of buyer's operating cycle and
shorten buyer's cash cycle. And if seller's credit extension period exceeds the buyer's inventory period, then
seller is not only financing the buyer's inventory purchases but also a part of the receivable as well.
On the other side if seller's credit extension period exceeds the buyer's operating cycle, then seller is
effectively financing the buyer's need beyond the purchase and sale of seller's merchandise.
The other factors that influence the credit period decisions are:
Perish-ability of goods: if the shelve life of any good is short then it has low collateral value and attracts
short credit period compared to the goods having longer life.
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Corporate Finance ­FIN 622
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Old vs. New products: A well established product may have shorter credit period limits. New products do
not have rapid turnover and often have longer credit periods associated with them. During off-season, the
credit period of well established products is extended to long periods.
Credit risk: If the buyer presumes greater risk he will extend short credit period.
Size of order: A large account order normally carries longer periods because of the turnover advantage. For
small orders the customers are not important.
Competition: If it is customary to extend large credit periods then all the sellers will be extending the same
level. This is because every seller has to attract the buyer in order to sell his product.
Customer type: corporate customers enjoy longer credit periods compared to individual customers due to
their business credibility.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO SUBJECT
  2. COMPARISON OF FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
  3. TIME VALUE OF MONEY
  4. Discounted Cash Flow, Effective Annual Interest Bond Valuation - introduction
  5. Features of Bond, Coupon Interest, Face value, Coupon rate, Duration or maturity date
  6. TERM STRUCTURE OF INTEREST RATES
  7. COMMON STOCK VALUATION
  8. Capital Budgeting Definition and Process
  9. METHODS OF PROJECT EVALUATIONS, Net present value, Weighted Average Cost of Capital
  10. METHODS OF PROJECT EVALUATIONS 2
  11. METHODS OF PROJECT EVALUATIONS 3
  12. ADVANCE EVALUATION METHODS: Sensitivity analysis, Profitability analysis, Break even accounting, Break even - economic
  13. Economic Break Even, Operating Leverage, Capital Rationing, Hard & Soft Rationing, Single & Multi Period Rationing
  14. Single period, Multi-period capital rationing, Linear programming
  15. Risk and Uncertainty, Measuring risk, Variability of return–Historical Return, Variance of return, Standard Deviation
  16. Portfolio and Diversification, Portfolio and Variance, Risk–Systematic & Unsystematic, Beta – Measure of systematic risk, Aggressive & defensive stocks
  17. Security Market Line, Capital Asset Pricing Model – CAPM Calculating Over, Under valued stocks
  18. Cost of Capital & Capital Structure, Components of Capital, Cost of Equity, Estimating g or growth rate, Dividend growth model, Cost of Debt, Bonds, Cost of Preferred Stocks
  19. Venture Capital, Cost of Debt & Bond, Weighted average cost of debt, Tax and cost of debt, Cost of Loans & Leases, Overall cost of capital – WACC, WACC & Capital Budgeting
  20. When to use WACC, Pure Play, Capital Structure and Financial Leverage
  21. Home made leverage, Modigliani & Miller Model, How WACC remains constant, Business & Financial Risk, M & M model with taxes
  22. Problems associated with high gearing, Bankruptcy costs, Optimal capital structure, Dividend policy
  23. Dividend and value of firm, Dividend relevance, Residual dividend policy, Financial planning process and control
  24. Budgeting process, Purpose, functions of budgets, Cash budgets–Preparation & interpretation
  25. Cash flow statement Direct method Indirect method, Working capital management, Cash and operating cycle
  26. Working capital management, Risk, Profitability and Liquidity - Working capital policies, Conservative, Aggressive, Moderate
  27. Classification of working capital, Current Assets Financing – Hedging approach, Short term Vs long term financing
  28. Overtrading – Indications & remedies, Cash management, Motives for Cash holding, Cash flow problems and remedies, Investing surplus cash
  29. Miller-Orr Model of cash management, Inventory management, Inventory costs, Economic order quantity, Reorder level, Discounts and EOQ
  30. Inventory cost – Stock out cost, Economic Order Point, Just in time (JIT), Debtors Management, Credit Control Policy
  31. Cash discounts, Cost of discount, Shortening average collection period, Credit instrument, Analyzing credit policy, Revenue effect, Cost effect, Cost of debt o Probability of default
  32. Effects of discounts–Not effecting volume, Extension of credit, Factoring, Management of creditors, Mergers & Acquisitions
  33. Synergies, Types of mergers, Why mergers fail, Merger process, Acquisition consideration
  34. Acquisition Consideration, Valuation of shares
  35. Assets Based Share Valuations, Hybrid Valuation methods, Procedure for public, private takeover
  36. Corporate Restructuring, Divestment, Purpose of divestment, Buyouts, Types of buyouts, Financial distress
  37. Sources of financial distress, Effects of financial distress, Reorganization
  38. Currency Risks, Transaction exposure, Translation exposure, Economic exposure
  39. Future payment situation – hedging, Currency futures – features, CF – future payment in FCY
  40. CF–future receipt in FCY, Forward contract vs. currency futures, Interest rate risk, Hedging against interest rate, Forward rate agreements, Decision rule
  41. Interest rate future, Prices in futures, Hedging–short term interest rate (STIR), Scenario–Borrowing in ST and risk of rising interest, Scenario–deposit and risk of lowering interest rates on deposits, Options and Swaps, Features of opti
  42. FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET’S OPTIONS
  43. Calculating financial benefit–Interest rate Option, Interest rate caps and floor, Swaps, Interest rate swaps, Currency swaps
  44. Exchange rate determination, Purchasing power parity theory, PPP model, International fisher effect, Exchange rate system, Fixed, Floating
  45. FOREIGN INVESTMENT: Motives, International operations, Export, Branch, Subsidiary, Joint venture, Licensing agreements, Political risk