History and Systems of Psychology PSY502
The objectives of this course are to introduce the students to the developmental history of the
subject of psychology, to prepare students to appreciate and use more advanced materials of psychology
and to provide the basic and the most modern knowledge related to psychology.
Main features of a given topic shall be discussed supported by reference materials and examples
from everyday life. You might be quizzed verbally by the teacher asking a question, letting you write the
answer and then giving you the correct answer. For example, "Freud established the Behaviorist School?"
Right or wrong? The correct answer is of course "wrong." Watson's name is associated with Behaviorist
School. At the end of two/three lectures a homework assignment would be given. Homework assignment
would be in the form of a short essay-type exam. It might also consist of multiple choice questions (MCQs).
There would be a mid-term exam after the completion of 21, one hour lectures. There would be a final
exam after the completion of 45 lectures.
Midterm exam will carry 35% weightage of marks for the total course. Final exam will be a
comprehensive exam and will carry 50% weightage of the total course. A total of eight assignments shall be
given carrying 15% weightage of the total marks in the course.
Two main text books will be used for the course. The first one will be:
"A History of Modern Psychology" by Duane Schultz & Sydney Schultz and
the Urdu text book used will be "Nafsiyat ka Irtika," by Rafiq Jaffer and Humair Hashmi.
Both books are easily available in the market. Handouts for the entire course, prepared by the instructor will
also be available for your benefit.
Course Overview up to Midterm
A review of the ancient philosophy / psychology in the Indo-Pak Sub-continent, we will then have
a look at the ancient Greek philosophy/psychology and go on to read about philosophy/psychology in the
5th to 12th century AD. We will then consider the impact of renaissance on psychology; it will thoroughly
reviewed; we then look at the British Associationism and go on to review the French and German
contributions to psychology up to the 18th and 19th Century. A review of Reflexive Psychology will follow
and then we will see the impact of physical sciences on psychology. We then look at the Structuralist School
of psychology, followed by a discussion on the Functionalist School of psychology, we will then review
psychology in the beginning of 20th century with the American contribution that is known as
"Behaviorism," and review "Behaviorism" and "Neo-Behaviorism:" Midterm exam will be held for course
covered from "Ancient philosophy/psychology to Neo-Behaviorism"
History and Systems of Psychology PSY502
Course Overview up to Final Exam
After the mid term exam more recent European contributions to psychology shall be discussed
those will include: The Gestalt School of psychology, the English Dynamic psychology, the Historico-
Evolutionary Psychology. We will then take a scientific outlook at mental illness. And then study the
Psychoanalytical School in the beginning of 20th century, followed by Jung's Analytical Psychology, and
Adler's Individual Psychology, followed by Psychodynamic contributors. It will then lead to a review of
Humanistic Psychology. We will then see the modern trends in psychological treatment of mental disorders,
including Anti-psychiatry Movement. We shall then see the development of psychology in parts of Africa
and Asia in 20th Century and finally a look at psychology in the 21st century.
Ancient Philosophy/Psychology in the Sub-Continent
The first and the foremost problem in any discipline is that of the scope and the definition. Such is
the case with psychology. It is only when we define psychology that we can move forward to view
"psychological" thoughts and ideas of man from ancient times up to today.
Psychology for that and the present purpose can be defined as the "study of mind and body." The
ancient man regarded "soul" as something that was invisible and resided inside a person. He had his own
explanations for the behavior of the soul and the body. For example the soul escaped the body when a
person was asleep. The escaped soul then performed certain actions on behalf of the person that was visible
in the form of dream work. Further, dream work, fainting spell, epileptic fits, mental and physical
discrepancies were also regarded as expressions of the soul.
The ancient man also believed in what is termed "animism." Animism is the process of seeing
human qualities in inanimate objects such as moon, stars, stones etc. He humanized those objects in order
to make them easy to understand. The ancient man had a strong belief in magic and tried to learn and adopt
magical tricks which were his way of exercising control over things around him.
Ancient Indo-Pak history of psychology was no exception where also magic was an important
element. Magic as mentioned earlier, was used to exercise control over others and nature. It may be used for
negative purposes or positive purposes.
The ancient man also indulged in different exercises and activities to gain control over his body.
Yoga was one of such exercises involving breath control and different body postures. One of the yoga's
beliefs was that body and soul are related and connected and this connection influences body and soul both.
The ancient philosophy or psychology of the sub-continent advanced the belief that consciousness
is related to the brain. The ancient Europeans, the Greeks for instance, thought that consciousness was a
function of the heart of a man.
About a thousand years B.C. the sub-continentals differentiated between mental and physical labor.
Mental labor was the process of thinking and using the mind to solve problems, while physical labor was to
perform certain tasks physically. Mental labor was considered superior by the ancient man while physical
labor was considered inferior. They also believed that our mental faculties are inherited.
According to the sub-continentals Atma or the soul of a person was the pure self. Further, the
world around us was an illusion or a deception played on us by our senses. Some others believed that
consciousness and mind were the products of material development. These two beliefs are called Idealism
and Materialism today. The later ancient Greek philosophy has a number of similarities to the sub-
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