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International Marketing

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InternationalMarketing ­ MKT630
VU
Lesson # 14
INTERNATIONAL
CULTURAL
AND
SOCIAL
ENVIRONMENTS
Defining Culture
Nation as a definition of society:
A society can be defined on a variety of parameters, regional,linguistic, ethnic, religiousetc. Nation is a
more useful definition of a societyfor international marketing perspective due to the following reasons;
­  Businessemploys, sells to, buys from, is regulated by and is owned by people
­  Humandifferences give rise to differentbusiness practices in variousparts of the world
­  Nation is useful definition of society
­ similarity among people is cause and an effect of national boundaries
­ lawsapply primarily alongnational lines
Within a nation
­
People share essential attributes perpetuated through rites and symbols of nationhood - flags,
parades,rallies, common history
­
Nationmay include various subcultures / groups and is legitimized by beingmediator of
differentinterests
­
Nationcomprises people whoseattributes vary widely,usually some characteristicsdominate
whichinfluence how business is conducted
Theconcept of culture:
Is the collection of values, beliefs, rules, behaviors, customs, attitudes,institutions andartifacts
thatcharacterize human population
Characteristics of culture:
­
learnedpatterns of behavior common to members of a givensociety
­
elements of culture areinterrelated
­
it is adaptive
­
defines membership of the society
Elements of a culture:
Theelements of a culture thatdefine it are in the following;
Social structure describes a culture
­ individualsand their attitudes,families, groups
­ socialstratification, and
­ socialmobility across the social/economic stratas
Language is a cultural mirror (words and discourses and their use and meaning in a particular
culture)
Communication
(c)Copyrights Virtual University of Pakistan
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InternationalMarketing ­ MKT630
VU
­ low context vs high context cultures
­ nonverbalcommunication constitutes over 80% of a social communication
­ giftgiving & hospitality
Attitudes & beliefs
Attitudesand beliefs also varyacross culture on variousaspects. Some of the keycultural aspects
of attitudes are givenbelow;
attitudestowards:
time
work & leisure
achievement
change
jobs
religion
aesthetics
moral / ethical issues
othercultures & races
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Table of Contents:
  1. OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETING:Domestic marketing, Multinational marketing, Globalization of markets
  2. INETRNATIONAL MARKETING PROCESS:Situation Analysis, Implementation and Control, Relationship
  3. INETRNATIONAL MARKETING PROCESS:The Product Concept, The Societal Marketing Concept
  4. INETRNATIONAL MARKETING PROCESS
  5. ENGAGING IN INETRNATIONAL MARKETS:Expansion of technology, Merchandize export and import
  6. INTERNATIONAL TRADE & INVESTMENT THEORIES:Theory of Comparative Advantage, Country Similarity Theory
  7. INTERNATIONAL TRADE & INVESTMENT THEORIES:Global Strategic Rivalry Theory,
  8. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS:Foreign exchange info
  9. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS:The Product
  10. FOREIGN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS:Political systems in the world, Political risks in international markets
  11. FOREIGN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS:Types of legal systems,
  12. FOREIGN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS:Conciliation, Mediation, Global relevance
  13. ROLE OF GOVERNMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Industry-level needs, Promotion of exports by governments
  14. INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTS:The concept of culture, Attitudes & beliefs,
  15. INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTS:Culture is a human medium
  16. DETERMINING EXPORT POTENTIAL IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Political Environment
  17. DETERMINING EXPORT POTENTIAL IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Product Potential
  18. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS:market structure, Implementing the research plan
  19. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS:Identify alternative information sources
  20. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS:Issues with primary global research:
  21. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS:Problems with data, Comparative Analysis
  22. MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Export intermediaries, Export and import management
  23. MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Licensing contract, Licensing risks
  24. MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:The franchisers balance,
  25. MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Forms of countertrade, Specialized entry modes
  26. MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Demand factors, Political factors
  27. MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Drivers behind successful joint ventures
  28. MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Distribution agreements, Critical mass & optimism traps
  29. INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIC ALLIANCES:Impetus for international alliances, Management of strategic alliances
  30. INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETS:Model of Consumer BehaviorThe Buyer Decision Process
  31. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MARKETS:Nature of buying unit, Major influences on international business buyers
  32. INTERNATIONAL TARGET MARKETING:Market segmentation, Market positioning
  33. INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION:Geographic, Behavioral, Situational factors
  34. INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION:Basis for country segmentation, Stages of economics development
  35. INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION:Cultural Variables,
  36. INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION:Market coverage strategy, Socio-economic variables
  37. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MIX - PRODUCT POLICY:Individual product decisions, Branding
  38. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MIX PRODUCT POLICY:
  39. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MIX - PRODUCT POLICY:Modular Approach
  40. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MIX PRODUCT POLICY:Issues in labeling, Pricing, Distribution
  41. INTRODUCING NEW PRODUCTS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:The new product development process
  42. PRICING IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Factors influencing international pricing,
  43. ITERNATIONAL MARKETING CHANNELS:Channel membership, Vertical marketing, Control over distribution
  44. PROMOTING IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Advertising, Direct marketing, Public Relationing
  45. REVISION