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Change Management

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Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
Lesson # 42
IMPLEMENTATION: PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL
The Punctuated Equilibrium (PE) model presents the synthesized version of the two approaches on
implementation of change. This is considered to be a comprehensive and integrated view of the two
approaches studied earlier that was, incrementalism and radicalism. There are scholars who believe
both approaches are complementary rather than conflicting, and the issue is not whether, but when to
adopt incrementalist or transformational approach. These scholars are Greiner; Miller & Freisen,
Tushman and they do not prescribe one desirable change type but suggest a model entailing lifecycle
approach and dual feature of stability and turbulence. Hence the related concepts are Organization Life
Cycle Theory, Greiner's model and Organization Learning.
Now the features of two earlier models or approaches are as:
Features of incremental change
Unidirectional
Continuous
Constant learning
Relevant at all or multiple levels of organizations
Converging &
Short term based
Features of Radical Change
Multi-directional
Discontinuous
Periodic learning
Relevant at upper echelon of organization (top-level)
Frame-breaking
Long term based
Therefore we need to synthesis both. Hence PE model contains features or attributes of both types.
Earlier we have studied Greiner's model of metamorphosis. The model was developed by Tushman and
Romanelli who argued that organization progresses through convergent periods punctuated by re-
orientations which demark and set bearings for the next convergent period. Convergent periods are
relatively long spans of incremental change and adaptation, whereas reorientations are relatively short
periods of radical ­ discontinuous change. Change is theorized on five domains of organization activity:
·
Culture
·
Strategy
·
Structure
·
Power structure and
·
Control system - together they all constitute to form strategic orientation
(Tushman & Romanelli)
Momentum
A relevant definition of concern is momentum which means for long periods of relatively stable, slow
and predictable organizational interspersed with short and intense periods of massive changes in
momentum within the organization.
To Miller and Freisen, long periods of the maintenance of a given configuration, punctuated by brief
periods of multi faceted and concerted transition
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Change Management ­MGMT625
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P-E model suggest four types of organizational change
1. Fine tunings ­ ongoing process of finding fit or matches between strategies, structure, people
processes.
2. Incremental adjustment (Quinn's model)
3. Modular transformation ­ major re-alignment of one or more departments or divisions.
4. Corporate transformation ­ radical shift in strategy and rev changes in whole organization
The purpose of organizational change is to move from one state to the desired state in different ways ­
incremental and radical
Theory of P-E model
This model has following attributes to explain the phenomenon of organizational transformation:
·
It enables predictions about patterns of fundamental organizational transformation
·
The theory accounts for tension between the forces of stability and change
·
Organizations establish an initial pattern of activity based on the environmental conditions
prevailing and managerial decisions made during their time of founding.
·
As a result of inertia and institutionalization organizations develop coherent systems of shared
understandings that support continuation of the established patterns.
·
Therefore according to P-E model radical and discontinuous change is necessary to break the
inertia
With these attributes author of the article came forth with the following theorization:
Hypothesis 1: organizational transformation will most frequently occur in short, discontinuous bursts
of change involving most or all key domains of organizational activity
PE theorists suggests the interdependence of organizational sub-units; and argue that organization must
be constructed so as to ensure a complementary alignment among structural variables (buyers,
suppliers, financial backers, pattern of culture, norms & ideology) as against the incremental view who
emphasize the relative independence of organization subunits dealing incrementally and disjointedly
with one problem and one goal at a time in short run reactionary manner
Hypothesis 2: Small changes in individual domains of organizational activity will not accumulate
incrementally to yield a fundamental transformation
The question then is how to have an organizational transformation with PE theoretical perspective? PE
theorists believe resistance to change or organizational inertia can be broken through revolutionary
transformation means and conditions. Hypothesis Number 3, 4 and 5 talks about the triggers of
organizational change
Hypothesis No 3: Major declines in the short term performance or sustained decline over several years
will substantially increase the likely hood of revolutionary transformation.
Hypothesis 4: Major changes in environmental conditions will significantly increase the likelihood of
revolutionary transformation
Hypothesis No 5: Installation of a new chief executive officer will significantly increase the likelihood
of revolutionary transformation
Important question for us how this type of change manifest in the real life? Or what are the indicators of
transformational change in organizational dynamics. The fundamental organizational transformation
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Change Management ­MGMT625
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occurred whenever there were substantial changes observed in the strategy, structure and power
distribution domain of organizational activity (power distribution means ­ appointment, key positions
and placements, hiring-firing, transfers). To what extent these variables are valid for change
management in public or corporate sector organizations in Pakistan
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Table of Contents:
  1. COURSE ORIENTATION:Course objectives, Reading material, Scope of the subject
  2. BENEFITS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT:Traditional management domain
  3. KURT LEWIN MODEL: ASSUMPTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Change Movement, Refreeze
  4. IMPLICATIONS OF KURT LEWIN MODEL:Sequence of event also matters, A Critical Look
  5. SOME BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS:Strategic change, Logical incrementalism
  6. TRANSACTIONAL VS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Micro-changes, Organisation Development
  7. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  8. LIFE CYCLE THEORY:Unit of Change, Mode of change, Organisation death
  9. TELEOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of change, Mode of Change, Limitations
  10. DIALECTICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of Change, Strategic planning
  11. A DIALECTICAL APPROACH TO ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY AND PLANNING:
  12. LIMITATION OF DIALECTICS; DA AND DI:Overview of application of dialectics
  13. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  14. APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY:Managerial focus
  15. FURTHER APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES:Criticism
  16. GREINER’S MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL– EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION
  17. GROWTH RATE OF THE INDUSTRY:CREATIVITY, DIRECTION, DELEGATION
  18. COORDINATION:COLLABORATION, The Crisis
  19. ORGANISATION ECOLOGY:Structural Inertia, Internal Structural Arrangements, External Factors
  20. CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL SPECIES:Extent of Environmental Selection, Determinants of Vital Rates,
  21. FOOTNOTES TO ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE:Stable Processes of Change, Rule Following, Conflict
  22. SOME COMPLEXITIES OF CHANGE:Superstitious Learning, Solution Driven Problems
  23. ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION:The Entrepreneurial problem, The Administrative Problem
  24. PROSPECTORS:Analyzer, Reactors, Adaptation and Strategic Management
  25. SKELETAL MODEL OF ADAPTATION:Determinants of Adaptive ability, The Process of Adaptation
  26. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Nature of Change, The Importance of Context, Force field Analysis
  27. Management Styles and Roles:Change Agent Roles, Levers for managing strategic Change
  28. SYMBOLIC PROCESSES:Political Processes, COMMUNICATING CHANGE, Change Tactics
  29. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Pettigrew & Whipp’s Typology, Context on X-axis (Why of change)
  30. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Attributes of SOC Model, Implications for Management
  31. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Flow of Information, Recruitment, SOC Process
  32. Determinants of a Successful Change Management:Environmental, Management Orientation, Management Orientation
  33. Higgins 08 S Model – An Adaptation from Waterman’s Seven S model:Strategy, Systems and Processes, Resources
  34. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  35. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  36. WHY IMPLEMENTING STRATEGIC CHANGE IS SO DIFFICULT?:Change Typology, Technical Change
  37. IMPLEMENTATION APPROACHES:Attributes of incremental change,
  38. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  39. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Definition of Leadership, Follower Work Facilitation
  40. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Recognize the challenge
  41. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  42. IMPLEMENTATION: PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL:Features of Radical Change, Theory of P-E model
  43. CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION: OD MODELS:The Transactional Factors
  44. CULTURE, VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Significance and Role of Values, Values Compete
  45. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES, CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Issues in Change Management