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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
LESSON 05
HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS
Text Books
Khan, Sultan, Public Administration with Special Reference to Pakistan,
Urdu Bazar, Lahore (latest edition)
Nigro and Nigro, Modern Public Administration, Harper & Row, NY (latest edition)
At the end of the lecture the students will be able to understand the following:-
1.
Main features of Human Relations Schools
2.
The concept of behaviour and the common features of behavioural School and Human Relations
3.
Theory X and Theory Y
4.
Maslow hierarchy of need i.e. the concepts in need theory
5.
Concepts and main features of System school
We will now conclude Hebert Simons work. But before we do that we attempt to see how Simon
classified administrative behaviour.
He has classified the administrative behaviour as follows:-
1. The study of bureaucracy: In order to understand decision making, it is better to understand the
structure of organization, because the structure determines behaviour.
2. Human relations pertaining to motivation and increasing job satisfaction: The study of human
relations and motivation determines the performance in organization.
3. Decision-making studies emphasizing cognitive processes and the rational components of
administrative behaviour: The decision making behaviour in organization is based on cognitive
process as well as rational
In his view, all behaviour involves conscious or unconscious selection of particular actions. For
example:
If a manager has to decide to fire Mr. X., the conscious considerations would be like the employee
was undisciplined, and continuously performed unsatisfactorily. His unconscious consideration might be
that the manager did not like his him personally.
Main Features of Human of Relation Approach
This is a brief snapshot of the human relations theories. The Human Relations School focused on
the:-
Individuals behaviour, cognitive decision-making process and nature of authority in organization
Informal, interpersonal relationship, group dynamics and communication pattern
Behavioural School
The Behavioural School looked at human motivation and social environment in which the
organizations work. They studied the behaviour of individuals in the organization and the affect of
behaviour on organizational performance. The main contributors to Behavioural School were Psychologists
and Sociologists.
What is behaviour?
Behaviour is defined in general sense as actions of people that are seen. As you can see in the figure
the behaviour that can be seen is really the tip of the ice being. Below this tip is the unseen attitudes,
thoughts, feelings, perception, motive etc. The unseen attitudes etc. drive certain behaviour which is seen.
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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For example we can see the behaviour of a person who violates traffic signal or who litters around. From
this behaviour we can infer his perceptions and attitudes towards rules and cleanliness respectively.
Figure
Behaviour
Seen
Behaviour
Attitudes
Thoughts Motives
Feelings
Not Seen
The Human Relation School and Behavioural School have many things in common. These are:
1.
Both focus on motivation of people
2.
Both emphases Clarity of communication
3.
They emphasize interpersonal relationship: How people relate with each other
4.
Both look at individual and group behaviour: Behaviour of people in the group and individual
behaviour
Main Contributors of Behavioural
The main contributors whose work is analyzed are:-
1. Douglas McGregor
2. Abraham Maslow
Douglas McGregor:
Douglas McGregor presented a theory called Theory X and Theory Y. His Theory X and Y are the
negative and positive assumption about human behaviour.
Theory X
Theory X has negative assumptions, which are as follows:-
1. Dislike work: It is assumed that human beings are lazy and docile, therefore, they avoid work.
2. Avoid responsibility: Because human beings are lazy, they do not want to take any responsibility.
3. They need to be supervised: From the above two assumption it follow that they need to be
supervised. As human beings are lazy, therefore, in order to get work out of them they need to be
closely supervised.
Theory Y
Theory Y is a positive assumption about human behaviour, and its assumptions are just the
opposite of Theory X. These assumptions are:
1. People accept responsibility: Because they are willing to work and agile and active. They want to
achieve goals for the organization and accept responsibility.
2. Can exercise control: Because they are responsible, therefore, they want to have control over things
3. Have capacity to be creative: People want to be creative and look for challenge.
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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4. Can work as natural as rest or play: For people work and rest are equal, i.e. people want to work
and rest which is natural they cannot rest all the time because it becomes boring and they cannot
work all the time because it becomes dull as well
Maslow's Need Hierarchy
This theory was developed by Abraham Maslow. This theory has received more attention from
managers. Maslow viewed human motivation as a hierarchy of five needs (see figure) ranging from the most
basic physiological or basic needs to the highest level of need for "self actualization". According to Maslow,
individuals will be motivated to fulfill the most pressing need at a time. The importance of need depends on
the deprivation of the need and current situation. If the individual is deprived of basic need he will be at
that level of need. For example the basic needs are food, clothing and shelter. If one is hungry and is
starving one will not be able to think of higher level of need i.e. safety. The needs at the lower level must be
satisfied before one moves to higher level of needs.
Figure
Self
Actualization
Ego-Status
Belongingness
Safety
Basic Needs
System Schools
The main contributors of system schools are:-
1. Fermont E. Kast
2. James E. Rosenzweig
3. William Scott
The word `system' is borrowed from biological sciences to social science. It attempts to see
organizations as other systems, like irrigation system, Ecosystem, circulatory system, digestive system, solar
system, etc.
Some of these are mechanistic system, some are organic system. The mechanistic system is static
e.g. these do not change with changes outside the system. Organic systems are not static. Organic System
responds to external environment.
There are two basic components of system Theory. These are:-
System School views organization as "unified, purposeful system composed of interrelated
parts"
This theory provides opportunity to look at organization as a whole and as part of larger external
environment
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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Parts of Organization
An organization comprise of many parts or sub-system. The figure shows an organization structure
of a university. Three sub-system i.e. Examination, Registration and Human Resource management are
shown. These sub-systems or parts of organization constitute one big organization. Since organizations are
compared to organic system, these are changeable. The organization as a whole responds to external system.
Figure
Rector
Human Resource
Examination
Registration
Management
Key Concepts in System School
Following are some key concepts in System Theory:-
Subsystem: The part that make up the whole
Synergy: whole is greater than the sum of its part The combine effect of system
System boundary: Boundary separates system from the external environment
Open & closed system: system that interacts with its environment is open system
Feedback: return of information to the organization. The figure below shows the feed back
mechanism.
Figure
Inputs
Transformation
Products
Human
Use of processes to
Good and Services
Financial
change resources into
Physical
goods and services
Feedback
The theories or schools of thoughts that we have tried to understand explain us one aspect of
organization. Therefore, we cannot say that one theory is better than other. In fact all theories if studied are
helpful in explaining organizational behaviour, and explain us different aspects of organization.
The classical theories help us understand the mechanical aspects like line of command, unity of
direction hierarchy etc. While Human and Behavioural Schools help us understand the human side of
organizations.
Concepts
Theory X:
The negative assumptions about human behaviour
Theory Y:
The positive assumptions about human behaviour
Behaviour:
Actions of Individual that can be observed
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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Need Hierarchy:
Human needs are placed in different levels, from the basic level
to the highest level.
Sub-System:
The part that make up the whole
Feed back:
Return of information to the organization
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  8. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION II
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  20. PLANNING COMMISSION AND PLANNING DEVELOPMENT:Functions, Approval Authority
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  25. SELECTION AND TRAINING AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS:Performance Evaluation,
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  44. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA I
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management