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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
LESSON 07
HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION ­ I
At the end of the lecture the students will be able to understand:-
1. The Management Science School
2. Understand the practice of public administration in the following periods:-
- Indus Valley Civilization
- Moghul Period
- British Period
The Management Science School
At the beginning of World War II, Great Britain desperately needed to solve complex problem in
warfare. The British formed a team of mathematician, physicists and other scientist. The British were able to
achieve technological breakthrough. When the war was over the applicability of Operations Research (OR)
to problems in industry became apparent. Over the years OR (the use of mathematic, statistics) procedure
came to called the management science. It is the application of mathematics, statistics & economic models
to the problems of organization. It also involves determining relationship between two or more variables.
For example: age and learning, income and expenditure, training and efficiency etc.
Public Administration in the Sub-Continent
Today's administrative systems and procedures in Pakistan have its roots in particular to the British
period. Two hundred years of British rule still have its vestiges and remnants on the structure, rules,
procedures and organizational behaviours. But the British changed the structure to the extent of what their
goals were in the sub-continent. The retained the structure at the district level which they inherited from
Moguls.
Sub-continent to a bedrock of many civilizations as it stood at the cross roads of Central Asia,
Middle East and South East of sea, as such is influenced by Greeks, Arabs and Central Asians.
Administrative process in Pakistan is the result of years of assimilation of the cultural and
administrative practices of Indus Valley Civilizations including Aryans, Greeks, Persian, Maurya, Moghuls
and British.
Traditional Functions of Government
Before we discuss what administrative structure existed in this part of the world, we must
understand the traditional function of the government. These functions are as follow:-
1. Maintain law and order (peace and security). For any government to rule it must maintain internal
peace and security. Without peace and security government will not be able to perform its other
functions.
2. Tax collection: It is the second but important functions governments taxes are collected to provide
for defence i.e. external threat. Also governments have to provide for welfare and public goods like
roads etc.
3. Defence: The government has to protect country from external threat and has to maintain army.
4. Maintenance of mint: Governments have to supply currency and coins. This is government's
responsibility to maintain mints & printing of notes.
Indus Valley Civilization
In the sub-continent two civilizations of ancient time i.e. Mohenjodaro and Harrapa were very
developed cities between 3250- 2750 BC. The ruins of these cities tell us that the rulers maintained a good
sewage and water supply system. The city had granary and bricks were used in the construction of houses.
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
Gordon Childe writes:
The remains of many well planned streets and municipal system of drains, regularly cleaned, reflect
the vigilance of some regular municipal government. Its authority was strong enough to secure observance
of town planning bye-laws'.
"Granaries at Harrapa were constructed in planned and coordinated manner. Grain was source of
wealth and collected as taxes."
The Maurya Empire in early 4th century BC had government official who looked after agriculture
improvement, measured land and inspected irrigation system.
During this period government employees were divided into three categories:
1. District Officials were responsible for irrigation, land measurement, hunting, agriculture, roads and
distance stones.
2. Officials who dealt with military: Army was maintained to defend the borders and it was well
looked after.
3. Capital Management: There were 6 boards, each managing i) supervision of factories, ii) care of
foreigners, iii) births & deaths, iv) trade & commerce, v) inspection of manufactured articles and vi)
collection of sales tax. (Taken from Kautilya, Arthasastra, Book II, Ch. XXXVI)
The book by Kautilya is one of the oldest books on Public Administration written during Maurya
period. This book was written for the officials who were responsible for running the government, so that
they understand their duties and responsibilities.
Moghul Period
Moghul administrative system has clear imprints on the present day public management in Pakistan.
Moghul period lasted over two centuries (16th ­ 18th), during which many rulers including Sher Shah Suri
and Akber, reigned. Though Suri was not Moghul ruler but his administrative system was adopted by
succeeding rulers. Suri, developed a centralized system of administration, divided the empire into 47
divisions, with several sub-divisions under each division. He organized survey of land under cultivation,
effective tax system, criminal justice system, Road network: for defence and postal service: He constructed
the present Grand Trunk (GT) road, which runs from Peshawar to Calcutta.
He established gardens and hospitals and promoted public welfare. He was guided by the principle
that `no one should be deprived of state benefaction and no one should have superfluity of the same'. Many
Moghul Rulers followed Sher Shah Suri. But Akber's period is longest and many developments took place.
Akber ruled the sub-continent for nearly 50 years. He developed the administrative system mainly borrowed
from Sher Shah Suri.
The empire was divided into, provinces, divisions, districts and villages. These terms are used even
now. Village was the lowest unit and it was governed by headman, accountant and watchman. The British
did not change this system and existed up to the partition of sub-continent and later.
During the time of Akbar human resource management was done. Career civil service system with
hierarchical structure existed. Entry to civil service was not restricted based on religion or geographic origin.
Akber further improved the system:
1. Revenue collection system: During Akber period revenue collection system was improved. It was
based on survey and classification of soil. The land was classified as agriculture and non-agriculture.
Within the agriculture the land was graded State tax was then fixed and charged according to the
type of soil.
2. Judicial system: Judicial Officers were appointed at the district, town and village levels.
3. Law enforcement: Kotwal (chief police officer), with only civil authority was appointed in
important towns. In rural areas faujdar (army chief) was appointed to control crime.
After Akber, for over hundred years no real administrative system could develop, mainly because
the disarray of the empire began with Jahangir, who first allowed the East India Company to set up a
factory in 1642 at Balasore for medical service provided by the Surgeon of the company on the ship.
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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The East India Company, which was a trading Company and had its Board of Governors, was
granted charter on 31 Dec., 1600 to trade freely into and from East Indies, by the British Parliament.
British Period
The beginning of British Rule in the sub-continent started and the East India Company gradually
expanded its operations. In 1609 - the authority to trade was further extended. In 1661 - the Company was
empowered to declare war on and have peace with any ruler.
The Regulating Act 1773 was passed by British parliament granting the British government powers
to regulate the affairs of the Company in India. By this time the British government was not ruling directly
India. All matters and powers were given to the company to rule.
In 1757 the victory at Plassey paved the way for the British rule. There were innumerable battles
and conflict before the British government's direct rule which really started after 1857 (war of
independence).
Concepts
Traditional functions of government: maintain law & order, tax collection, defence and
maintenance of mint
Tax system:
a system that collects revenue for the government
Judicial system:
a system that interprets law and provides justice to
citizens
East India Company:
It was a company (like the multinational company of
today) that came to trade goods, especially spices. But in
the process of trade they found goods other than spice
like cotton.
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  8. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION II
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  20. PLANNING COMMISSION AND PLANNING DEVELOPMENT:Functions, Approval Authority
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  25. SELECTION AND TRAINING AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS:Performance Evaluation,
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  44. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA I
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management