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Human Resource Development

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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
Lesson 33
HDI AND GENDER SENSITIVITY
The Gender-related Development Index (GDI) is an indication of the standard of living in a country,
developed by the United Nations (UN). It is one of the five indicators used by the United Nations
Development Programme in its annual Human Development Report. It aims to show the inequalities between
men and women in the following areas: long and healthy life, knowledge, and a decent standard of living.
The United Nations (UN) was previously responsible for a system of national accounts that measured only
market activities: the United Nations System of National Accounts (UNSNA). However, the UN now argues
that existing measures of poverty place too much emphasis on income. During the 1990s, when the UN had a
major focus on poverty, it developed a Human Development Index (HDI). According to this index, poverty is
defined as a lack of choices and opportunities for a tolerable life. The UN argues, in the context of this index,
that poverty has several dimensions: short life, illiteracy, exclusion and lack of access to public and private
resources. Respect and social standing are also part of the HDI (United Nations Development Project 1997:5).
Arguably, income is less relevant if someone has access to clean water, land, seeds, housing materials and a
close community with a rich cultural life. According to the HDI, poverty exists when these are lacking.
The HDI contains a Human Poverty Index (HPI). The HPI for developing countries uses three indicators of
deprivation: mortality (short life span), illiteracy and a composite index of access to health services (including
safe water, and malnutrition among children under five). The data within this index is not disaggregated by
gender (Fakuda-Parr 1999, Durbin 1999), but Elizabeth Durbin (1999:106-107) argues that the HPI could be
made gender-sensitive and thus able to reflect women's poverty. Many of the social statistics that would
facilitate such an analysis are already collected in many of the poorer countries. Statistics on maternal mortality
rates are one such indicator: the necessary statistics are available in most countries and give an indication of
women's health status and access to health care. Other information is available which reflect women's status in
society: for example, policies on marriage, divorce, contraception, the prevention of genital mutilation,
women's representation in politics; access to credit, land and housing; and the levels of reported domestic
violence, rape, murder and suicide of women (Durbin 1999:107).
In short, the HDI has some potential for becoming more gender sensitive and thus capturing dimensions of
poverty which are not usually included in studies of poverty, inequality and well-being world-wide. These
additional elements are likely to be most useful for measuring the success (or otherwise) of third world nations
in improving levels of well-being amongst their female population.
The Human Development Index, whilst potentially useful for research on women's levels of poverty, inequality
and well-being in the poorer nations, is less easily used by the richer nations. This also makes comparisons
difficult, and disguises the extent to which women may face similar issues in the richer and poorer worlds.
Women in the OECD nations are likely to fare well according to many of the indices used in the HPI, such as
access to education and clean water; yet poverty, inequality and related problems of poor health still face many
women within the richer nations. For example, it has been found that even in the affluent USA, many people
living on welfare benefits and low wages, especially women raising children alone, experience hunger (Eisinger
1998, Edin and Lein 1997:48-50). The question therefore is: how do we find ways of conceptualising women's
poverty, inequality and well-being that are easily applicable to both richer and poorer nations and permit
comparisons to be made?
Gender Empowerment Measure
The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) is a measure of inequalities between men's and women's
opportunities in a country. It combines inequalities in three areas: political participation and decision making,
economic participation and decision making, and power over economic resources. It is one of the five
indicators used by the United Nations Development Programme in its annual Human Development Report.
Methodology
Calculating the GEM involves several steps. First percentages for females and males are calculated in each area.
The first area is the number of parliamentary seats held. The second area is measured by two sub-components:
a) legislators, senior officials, and managers, and b) professional and technical positions. The third area is
measured by the estimated earned income (at PPP US$).
Second, for each area, the pair of gender percentages, are combined into an Equally Distributed Equivalent
Percentage (EDEP) that rewards gender equality and penalizes inequality. It is calculated as the harmonic mean
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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
of the two components. The EDEP for economic participation is the unweighted average of the EDEP for
each of it's sub-components. The EDEP for income is computed from gender sub-values that are indexed to a
scale from 100 to 40,000 (PPP US$).
Finally, the GEM is the unweighted average of the three Equally Distributed Equivalent Percentages.
Source: http://www.msd.govt.nz/documents/publications/msd/journal/issue14/14-gender-sensitive-
concepts.doc
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gender_Empowerment_Measure
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  2. FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR:Attitudes, Personality, Emotional Intelligence
  3. PERCEPTION:Attribution Theory, Shortcuts Frequently Used in Judging Others
  4. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION:Why Choose Big Five Framework?, THE OUTCOME OF FIVE FACTOR MODEL
  5. FIVE FACTOR MODEL:The Basis of Intrinsically Motivated Behavior, Intrinsic Motivation and Values
  6. MOTIVATION:EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION, Designing Motivating Jobs
  7. The Motivation Process:HOW TO MOTIVATE A DIVERSE WORKFORCE?,
  8. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION:PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  9. THE WORLD BEYOND WORDS:DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION, MINDFUL LISTENING
  10. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:EGO STATES, Parent Ego State, Child Ego State
  11. TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS:Complementary Transactions, Crossed Transactions, Ulterior Transactions
  12. NEURO-LINGUISTIC-PROGRAMMING
  13. CREATE YOUR OWN BLUEPRINT
  14. LEADERSHIP:ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOCRACY
  15. LEADERSHIP:Environment and Strategic Leadership Link, Concluding Remarks
  16. UNDERSTANDING GROUP BEHAVIOR:Stages of Group Development, Advantages of Group Decision Making
  17. UNDERSTANDING TEAM BEHAVIOR:TYPES OF TEAMS, Characteristics of Effective Teams,
  18. EMOTIONAL FACET:PHYSICAL FACET
  19. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & THE ROLE OF GOVERNACE:Rule of Law, Transparency,
  20. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and Its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  21. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI):Methodology,
  22. REPORTS:Criticisms of Freedom House Methodology, GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS
  23. SECTORS OF A SOCIETY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS:PUBLIC SECTOR, PRIVATE SECTOR
  24. NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS):Types, Methods, Management, Citizen organization
  25. HEALTH SECTOR:Health Impact of the Lebanon Crisis, Main Challenges,
  26. A STUDY ON QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
  27. ADULT EDUCATION:Lifelong learning
  28. THE PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ADULT EDUCATION:Problems of Adult Literacy, Strategies for Educating Adults for the Future
  29. TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:VET Internationally, Technical Schools
  30. ASSESSING THE LINK BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL FORMATION AND PERFORMANCE OF A UNIVERSITY
  31. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION:Social responsibility, Curriculum content
  32. ENVIRONMENT:Dark Greens and Light Greens, Environmental policy instruments
  33. HDI AND GENDER SENSITIVITY:Gender Empowerment Measure
  34. THE PLIGHT OF INDIAN WOMEN:
  35. ENTREPRENEURSHIP:Characteristics of entrepreneurship, Advantages of Entrepreneurship
  36. A REVISIT OF MODULE I & II
  37. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & ECONOMIC GROWTH (1975 TO 2003):
  38. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP:Origins, The Desired Outcomes of PPPs
  39. PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP):Situation in Pakistan,
  40. DEVOLUTION REFORMS A NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT:
  41. GOOD GOVERNANCE:Participation, Rule of law, Accountability
  42. MACROECONOMIC PROFILE OF A COUNTRY: EXAMPLE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN
  43. COORDINATION IN GOVERNANCE: AN EXAMPLE OF EU, The OMC in Social Inclusion
  44. MOBILIZING REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: THE ASEAN UNIVERSITY NETWORK, A CASE STUDY
  45. GOVERNMENT PRIORITIES AND POLICIES:Role of Government, Socio Cultural Factors in Implementing HRD Programs