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Change Management

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Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
Lesson # 15
FURTHER APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES
First is the strategy­structure debate and its application of western managerial knowledge in
context of Pakistan. The knowledge around us is the knowledge developed in the West for their
own purposes and objectives (environment). What is important for us is to develop skills to seek
relevancy, relate and appropriate this knowledge to our own contexts. We can already observe the
limitations and inadequacies of Western managerial and theoretical knowledge like that of
Hawthorne effect and Maslow theory of motivation as too abstract and generalised to deal with
distinct and differentiated cultural entities and societies of developing countries like that  of
Pakistan. Hence the need is to go for synthesis and selective application of Western management
paradigm.
Similarly, the logic and spirit of contextualising also goes fine with certain dimensions of evolution
theory like that of selection and adaptation. For instance in the context of public sector organisation
in Pakistan there is a kind of fixation with organization structure rather than strategy resulting in the
failure to evolve a distinct organization structure and managerial culture on their own. For example
one such reason for the failure of strategy was that shift in government's strategy from import-
substitution to export-promotion over a period of time never brought with it a shift or adjustment in
organization structure. In fact with the same (static) set of institution, bureaucratic structure and
values different strategies were followed. Therefore what is suggested is that evolving strategy
should be coupled with evolving structure.
With respect to strategy-structure debate the typical controversy is which should come first? Should
strategy be formulated first and then structure is organized along the strategy dimensions? Or it is
the idealised and standardised structure which remains effective and can make effective any type of
strategy. Further concern is how do organizations evolve their strategies? And more important is
whether change in strategy is simultaneously followed or corresponded with strategy. Going by the
spirit of evolutionary thinking it is the strategy­structure alignment and match which is required.
This was considered a traditional paradigm of management that good managers were considered
good managers every where (irrespective of industry, technology, size & place of organization) old
paradigm not valid for today's world. This has become irrelevant in today's highly specialised era
with hi-tech hyper changing world. So according to cultural school of thought (Comparative
Management) managerial practices which were considered effective in USA or Europe may not be
relevant and valid for developing countries like Pakistan. Therefore the localisation of management
by MNCs and other indigenous or local organization is imperative going by the dynamics of
evolutionary theory.
Large organisations are complex ­ more vulnerable because of formalization of process and
routinization. Mangers focus too much on procedures and due-process of law. Organizations are
divided into vertical columns (functional departments), therefore managers cease to look at
organization from holistic and integrated perspective. Organizations become rigid and refuse to
learn owing to functional specialization and tend to become inflexible. For larger organisations,
QM should be more successful in large and complex because they are vulnerable to organisational
routines and stagnation. Large organizations operate as a special case of selection principle as
organization moves from smaller to large one. According to John D Rockefeller, "the growth of a
large business is merely a survival of the fittest: it is merely the working out of a law of nature"
Moreover, organisation theorists use the term evolution in variety of ways. One such concept is
learning which means change in knowledge, change in skills and change in attitude of individual
and or organization as well. Now the question, is adaptation and learning synonymous with change?
Sidney Winter uses the term adaptive problem-solving. Adaptation and evolution are used
synonymously but for some authors the two terms are not similar? Levinthal distinguishes between
learning and adaptation. To him, learning occurs when there is an incremental change in an
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Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
organisational routine in response to feedback about outcome while adaptation is defined as when
an organisation changes some of its core attributes to fit environmental contingency.
Strategic management perspective
A firm has a perpetual concern with strategy formulation, strategy implementation and strategic
evaluation; and has a choice which set of strategy to opt or formulate. The two sets of policy
choices are internal development and external development; and both are considered opposite to
each other. The internal development strategy, in its traits is slow, gradual, equity based where
one's own organization culture is considered very sacred as against the external development
strategy which exhibits the characteristics of being fast, structural and high growth oriented.
Mergers, acquisitions, joint ventures strategies explain the same mode. Internal refers to slow,
gradualism or incrementalist or evolutionary view and the other refer to revolutionary types of
change.
Relationship With other theories of change
How this theory fits with other theories like with teleological, life-cycle and dialectical theories.
This theory incorporates diversity and multiplicity of views. This theory seems to be
comprehensive viz. other theories like. OLC is again like parallel explanations of evolutionary
theory. Thing tend to evolve in each stage of its development; be competitive; and environmental
context. Teleological theory explains change in terms of purposive and cautious ways of objective
setting, compatible with teleological ­ consistency in policies and objective for stable evolution of
organization With in organization we have dialectics and dialectical thinking; have to incorporate
opposing view point so as to come forth with effective policy outcome.
Criticism
This theory is not free from criticism. Natural selection favours the best of existing alternatives
rather on the best possible design. Here in this theory outcome is satisfying rather than optimising,
which means it does not strive for the best possible objectives. Another point of concern is that
organisation analogy is considered weak as organization is designed and managerial decisions are
taken cautiously and purposively while evolutionary biology rests on random variation. Because of
this deficiency in analogy Mayr has termed this theory as an "inappropriate formulation".
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Table of Contents:
  1. COURSE ORIENTATION:Course objectives, Reading material, Scope of the subject
  2. BENEFITS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT:Traditional management domain
  3. KURT LEWIN MODEL: ASSUMPTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Change Movement, Refreeze
  4. IMPLICATIONS OF KURT LEWIN MODEL:Sequence of event also matters, A Critical Look
  5. SOME BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS:Strategic change, Logical incrementalism
  6. TRANSACTIONAL VS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Micro-changes, Organisation Development
  7. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  8. LIFE CYCLE THEORY:Unit of Change, Mode of change, Organisation death
  9. TELEOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of change, Mode of Change, Limitations
  10. DIALECTICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of Change, Strategic planning
  11. A DIALECTICAL APPROACH TO ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY AND PLANNING:
  12. LIMITATION OF DIALECTICS; DA AND DI:Overview of application of dialectics
  13. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  14. APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY:Managerial focus
  15. FURTHER APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES:Criticism
  16. GREINER’S MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL– EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION
  17. GROWTH RATE OF THE INDUSTRY:CREATIVITY, DIRECTION, DELEGATION
  18. COORDINATION:COLLABORATION, The Crisis
  19. ORGANISATION ECOLOGY:Structural Inertia, Internal Structural Arrangements, External Factors
  20. CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL SPECIES:Extent of Environmental Selection, Determinants of Vital Rates,
  21. FOOTNOTES TO ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE:Stable Processes of Change, Rule Following, Conflict
  22. SOME COMPLEXITIES OF CHANGE:Superstitious Learning, Solution Driven Problems
  23. ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION:The Entrepreneurial problem, The Administrative Problem
  24. PROSPECTORS:Analyzer, Reactors, Adaptation and Strategic Management
  25. SKELETAL MODEL OF ADAPTATION:Determinants of Adaptive ability, The Process of Adaptation
  26. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Nature of Change, The Importance of Context, Force field Analysis
  27. Management Styles and Roles:Change Agent Roles, Levers for managing strategic Change
  28. SYMBOLIC PROCESSES:Political Processes, COMMUNICATING CHANGE, Change Tactics
  29. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Pettigrew & Whipp’s Typology, Context on X-axis (Why of change)
  30. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Attributes of SOC Model, Implications for Management
  31. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Flow of Information, Recruitment, SOC Process
  32. Determinants of a Successful Change Management:Environmental, Management Orientation, Management Orientation
  33. Higgins 08 S Model – An Adaptation from Waterman’s Seven S model:Strategy, Systems and Processes, Resources
  34. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  35. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  36. WHY IMPLEMENTING STRATEGIC CHANGE IS SO DIFFICULT?:Change Typology, Technical Change
  37. IMPLEMENTATION APPROACHES:Attributes of incremental change,
  38. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  39. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Definition of Leadership, Follower Work Facilitation
  40. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Recognize the challenge
  41. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  42. IMPLEMENTATION: PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL:Features of Radical Change, Theory of P-E model
  43. CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION: OD MODELS:The Transactional Factors
  44. CULTURE, VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Significance and Role of Values, Values Compete
  45. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES, CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Issues in Change Management