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International Marketing ­ MKT630
VU
Lesson # 11
FOREIGN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS
Legal Environments
Differences in legal systems:
Businesses are affected by legal environments of countries in many ways. Legal environments are not
just based on different laws and regulations concerning businesses, these are also defined by the factors
like rule of law, access to legal systems by foreigners, litigations systems etc.
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National legal systems vary on the following aspects;
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The rule of law
Some country have strong rule of law in that laws are applied strictly, quickly and fairly,
while in others laws are not applied for various reasons, such as corruption, strong
nationalism, weak legal institutions etc.
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The role of lawyers
A firm depends on lawyers to access courts to seek justice or to defend in case of any
litigation against. International business firms are affected by the role of lawyers in foreign
countries. In some countries there are few lawyers and it is difficult of very costly to engage a
good lawyer. In some countries lawyers may be corrupt or biased in favor of locals.
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Access to legal system
Access to legal system also varies from country to country, especially for foreign entities. In
some countries foreigners can easily access courts to seek remedies while in other countries
there may be restrictions.
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The burden of proof
In some countries the burden of proof, in case of any litigation, is on the defendant, while in
other countries the applicant / plaintiff has to first prove that there is a case for the court to
proceed against someone. It may become difficult for foreigners to get proofs in certain
situations.
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The right to judicial review
Various countries have different legal provisions for appeals and review of lower court or
earlier judgments. These provisions may also vary for foreign entities.
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And the laws
Laws relevant to businesses (including foreign firms) also vary from country to country.
Types of legal systems:
Business environments in foreign countries also vary with the types of legal systems. Various types of
legal systems are described in the following;
· Common law
Law based on cumulative wisdom of judges' decisions on individual cases over time. Relevant
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judgments of upper courts have bearings on lower court decisions.
· Statutory law
Laws enacted by legislative actions, i.e., through parliamentary proceedings
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International Marketing ­ MKT630
VU
· Civil law
Law based on codification and detailed listings. Laws, their applications and penalties are all
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detailed and judges have little flexibility compared with common based law systems.
· Tort law
Cover wrongful acts, damages, and injuries caused by an action other than breach of contract. In
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some countries, like USA, judges make big awards for tortuous liabilities, while in many other
countries courts are reluctant to entertain big claims under tort.
· Religious law - (Theocracy)
- When the cases are adjudicated based on religious knowledge and beliefs.
· Bureaucratic law
When officials adjudicate cases, such as in communist countries. This results into lack of
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consistency, predictability & appeal procedures
Legal issues faced by marketers in international markets:
Variations in legal environments, rule of law, laws, and legal systems affect foreign business firms in a
number or areas. Key areas of business that are affected by legal environments are listed below;
· Laws concerning employment and labor affect managing of workforce in international markets.
· Different laws in foreign countries regulate financing of operations by foreigners. In some countries
foreign firms are restricted access to local deposits / funds.
· Various countries around the world have different laws concerning marketing of products, especially
food products, pharmaceuticals, hazardous materials and strategic products to a nation.
· Countries also control and regulate developing and utilizing of technologies through various laws
and regulations.
· Many countries also have different laws and regulations that affect ownership of businesses by
foreigners.
· Countries also regulate / restrict remittances to foreign countries and repatriation of profits.
· Some countries regulate closing of operations and in some countries businesses are not allowed to
close shop especially when they have sold products that have guarantees and warranties from the
foreign firms.
· Various countries around the world have implemented different trade and investment regulations.
· Countries also have their own taxation requirements, systems and laws.
· Countries also differ on the accounting reporting requirements from various categories of firms.
· Legal environments of countries vary that also affect dispute resolution situations and
· contractual relationships.
· Countries around the world have also actively implemented environmental regulations that affect
businesses.
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Table of Contents:
  1. OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL MARKETING:Domestic marketing, Multinational marketing, Globalization of markets
  2. INETRNATIONAL MARKETING PROCESS:Situation Analysis, Implementation and Control, Relationship
  3. INETRNATIONAL MARKETING PROCESS:The Product Concept, The Societal Marketing Concept
  4. INETRNATIONAL MARKETING PROCESS
  5. ENGAGING IN INETRNATIONAL MARKETS:Expansion of technology, Merchandize export and import
  6. INTERNATIONAL TRADE & INVESTMENT THEORIES:Theory of Comparative Advantage, Country Similarity Theory
  7. INTERNATIONAL TRADE & INVESTMENT THEORIES:Global Strategic Rivalry Theory,
  8. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS:Foreign exchange info
  9. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS:The Product
  10. FOREIGN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS:Political systems in the world, Political risks in international markets
  11. FOREIGN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS:Types of legal systems,
  12. FOREIGN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS:Conciliation, Mediation, Global relevance
  13. ROLE OF GOVERNMENTS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Industry-level needs, Promotion of exports by governments
  14. INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTS:The concept of culture, Attitudes & beliefs,
  15. INTERNATIONAL CULTURAL AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENTS:Culture is a human medium
  16. DETERMINING EXPORT POTENTIAL IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Political Environment
  17. DETERMINING EXPORT POTENTIAL IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Product Potential
  18. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS:market structure, Implementing the research plan
  19. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS:Identify alternative information sources
  20. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS:Issues with primary global research:
  21. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS:Problems with data, Comparative Analysis
  22. MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Export intermediaries, Export and import management
  23. MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Licensing contract, Licensing risks
  24. MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:The franchiser’s balance,
  25. MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Forms of countertrade, Specialized entry modes
  26. MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Demand factors, Political factors
  27. MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Drivers behind successful joint ventures
  28. MODES OF ENTRY INTO INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Distribution agreements, Critical mass & optimism traps
  29. INTERNATIONAL STRATEGIC ALLIANCES:Impetus for international alliances, Management of strategic alliances
  30. INTERNATIONAL CONSUMER MARKETS:Model of Consumer BehaviorThe Buyer Decision Process
  31. INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MARKETS:Nature of buying unit, Major influences on international business buyers
  32. INTERNATIONAL TARGET MARKETING:Market segmentation, Market positioning
  33. INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION:Geographic, Behavioral, Situational factors
  34. INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION:Basis for country segmentation, Stages of economics development
  35. INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION:Cultural Variables,
  36. INTERNATIONAL MARKET SEGMENTATION:Market coverage strategy, Socio-economic variables
  37. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MIX - PRODUCT POLICY:Individual product decisions, Branding
  38. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MIX – PRODUCT POLICY:
  39. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MIX - PRODUCT POLICY:Modular Approach
  40. INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MIX – PRODUCT POLICY:Issues in labeling, Pricing, Distribution
  41. INTRODUCING NEW PRODUCTS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:The new product development process
  42. PRICING IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Factors influencing international pricing,
  43. ITERNATIONAL MARKETING CHANNELS:Channel membership, Vertical marketing, Control over distribution
  44. PROMOTING IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETS:Advertising, Direct marketing, Public Relationing
  45. REVISION