# Theory of Automata

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Theory of Automata
(CS402)
Theory of Automata
Lecture N0. 20
Introduction to Computer Theory
Chapter 8
Summary
Example of previous Theorem, Finite Automaton with output, Moore machine, Examples
Example
Let L20={w OE {0,1}*: |w| 20 and the 20th letter of w, from right is, 1}. Let S be the set of all strings of length
20, defined over Σ, any two of which are distinguishable w.r.t. L20. Obviously the number of strings belonging
to S, is 220. Let x and y be any two distinct strings i.e. they differ in ith letter, i=1,2,3,...20, from left. For i=1,
they differ by first letter from left.
Then by definition of L20, one is in L20 while other is not as shown below
0
.
...
.
1
.
...
.
So they are distinct w.r.t. L20 for z = L i.e. one of xz and yz belongs to L20.
Similarly if i=2 they differ by 2nd letter from left and are again distinguishable and hence for z belonging to Σ*,
|z|=1, either xz or yz belongs to L20 because in this case the 20th letter from the right of xz and yz is exactly the
2nd letter from left of x and y as shown below
z
0
.
...
.
...
z
1
.
.
Hence x and y will be distinguishable w.r.t. L20 for i=2, as well. Continuing the process it can be shown that any
pair of strings x and y belonging to S, will be distinguishable w.r.t. L20. Since S contains 220 strings, any two of
which are distinguishable w.r.t. L20, so using the theorem any FA accepting L20 must have at least 220 states.
Note
It may be observed from the above example that using Martin's method, there exists an FA having
220+1-1=2,097,151 states. This indicates the memory required to recognize L20 will be the memory of a computer
that can accommodate 21-bits i.e.the computer can be in 221 possible states.
Finite Automaton with output
Finite automaton discussed so far, is just associated with the RE or the language.
There is a question whether does there exist an FA which generates an output string corresponding to each input
string ? The answer is yes. Such machines are called machines with output.
There are two types of machines with output. Moore machine and Mealy machine
Moore machine
A Moore machine consists of the following
A finite set of states q0, q1, q2, ... where q0 is the initial state.
An alphabet of letters Σ = {a,b,c,...} from which the input strings are formed.
An alphabet G={x,y,z,...} of output characters from which output strings are generated.
A transition table that shows for each state and each input letter what state is entered the next.
An output table that shows what character is printed by each state as it is entered.
Note
It is to be noted that since in Moore machine no state is designated to be a final state, so there is no question of
accepting any language by Moore machine. However in some cases the relation between an input string and the
corresponding output string may be identified by the Moore machine. Moreover, the state to be initial is not
important as if the machine is used several times and is restarted after some time, the machine will be started
from the state where it was left off. Following are the examples
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Theory of Automata
(CS402)
Example
Consider the following Moore machine having the states q0, q1, q2, q3 where q0 is the start state and
Σ = {a,b},
G={0,1}
the transition table follows as
Characters
Old States
to be printed
a
b
1
q0-
q1
q3
0
q1
q3
q1
q2
q0
q3
0
1
q3
q3
q2
the transition diagram corresponding to the previous transition table may be
b
a
q1/0
q0/1
b
a
a
b
a
q3/1
q2/0
b
It is to be noted that the states are labeled along with the characters to be printed. Running the string abbabbba
over the above machine, the corresponding output string will be 100010101, which can be determined by the
following table as well
a
b
b
a
b
b
b
a
Input
q0
q0
q1
q1
q1
q3
q2
q3
q2
State
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
output
It may be noted that the length of output string is l more than that of input string as the initial state prints out the
extra character 1, before the input string is read.
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