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Introduction to Mass Communication

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Introduction to Mass Communication ­ MCM 101
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LESSON 28
FILM MEDIA IN SUBCONTINENT AND PAKISTAN (II) & ITS EFFECTS
More activities of foreigners made Bombay the centre of film world right in the beginning. But the
part of the subcontinent which spearheaded in film arts was Lahore. It will not be wrong to say that most
talent in direction, acting and singing was generated in the Lahore film studios before partition.
Here we will talk in detail how the film art flourished in Lahore before partition and how this one
distinguished mean of mass communication fared in Pakistan after independence.
Pakistan film history from 1896-1947
Pakistan shared its film history with India (Bharat) from 1896 to 1947. Lahore produced many films
and a big number of Pakistani artists debuted in this period.
Pakistani artists before 1947
The first silent film from Lahore was The Daughter of Today released in 1924 and the inaugural
Punjabi or talkie film from Lahore was Heer Ranjha in 1932. (Alam Ara was released in 1931, which
means Lahore was going as fast and one top film-home after Bombay in the subcontinent.
Some Memorable Movies from 1913-47
Raja Harishchandra
The Daughter of Today
Alam Ara
Heer Ranjha
Khazanci
Anmol Gharri
Jugnu
First film made with cultural taboos- sans women
Raja Harishchandra was released for public viewing in Coronation theatres, Bombay. The first
Indian motion picture, D. G. Phalke's mythological boasted of an all-male star-cast. Even the female lead
was played by a man since no woman was willing to be part of the cast.
First ever silent feature film from Lahore
Premier Film Company
The Daughter of Today
Released in: 1924
The first ever silent film from Punjab
Actors: A.K.Kardar, Wilayat Begum, M. Ismaeel, Vijay Kumar, Heera Lal and Master Ghulam Qadir, G.K.
Mehta.
M. Ismaeel started his film career from the first ever Lahore made silent film and he was an automatic
choice in the first talkie film from Lahore too.
Assistant Director: Mian Abdur Rasheed Kardar, was the man who started film making in Lahore. He
was hero in first silent film and director of first talkie film.
Inaugural Urdu/Hindi Indo-Pak feature film
Imperial Film Company Presents
Alam Ara
Urdu/Hindi (124 minutes, black & white)
Released on: Saturday, March 14, 1931 (Capital Cinema Lahore)
India's first talkie film was released at Bombay's Majestic cinema hall. It had seven songs and was 10,500
ft. long and ran for seven weeks. It was a costume drama and romantic film.
Story: A period fantasy that told of the ageing king of Kamarpur, and his two rival queens, Navbahar and
Dilbahar, and their rivalry when a fakir predicts that Navbahar will bear the king's heir. Dilbahar
unsuccessfully tries to seduce the army chief Adil (Vithal) and vengefully destroys his family, leaving his
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daughter Alam Ara (Zubaida) to be raised by nomads. Eventually, Alam Ara's nomad friends invade the
palace, expose Dilbahar's schemes, release Adil from the dungeon and she marries the prince of the realm.
Actors: Zubaida (Alam Ara), Master Vitthal (Adil), J. Sushila (as Sushila), Jillo Bai, Prithviraj Kapoor, Elizer,
Wazir Mohammed Khan, Jagdish Sethi and L.V. Prasad
Music: Feroz Shah and B. Irani
Singers: Zubaida, W.M. Khan
First ever Punjabi feature film
Heer Ranjha
Punjabi
Realesed in: 1932
The first ever Lahore made film.
Actors: Anwari Begum, Rafiq Ghazniv, Gul Hameed, Lala Yaqoob, M. Ismael, Fazal Shah, Walait Begum.
Anwari Begum and Rafiq Ghaznavi - the grand parent of Salma Agha - played title roles in this memorable
film. Rafiq Ghaznavi was a famous musician in the 30s and 40s and Anwari Begum appeared in many films,
one of them was Anmol Ghari.
Music: Rafiq Ghaznavi
Folk music comes to films
Pancholi Art Pictures
Khazanchi
Realesed in: 1941
Actors: Ramola, Naring, M. Ismael, Manorma, Ajmal, Janki Das, Durga Khote
Music: Revolutionary music director Master Ghulam Haidar changed the whole style of film music from
classical Bengali to folk Punjabi music in this mega hit film from Lahore. Master Ghulam Haidar
introduced Baby Noor Jehan as playback singer in this film first time. (He also introduced Indian diva Lata
Mangeshkar in film Majboor in 1948).
Mehoboob Production Ltd. (Bombay-Lahore)
Anmol Gharri (Urdu/Hindi)
Released in: 1946
Actors: Noor Jehan, Surender, Surayya, Zahoor Raja, Leela Mishra, Anwari Begum, Bhudo Anvari, Murad
Director: Mehboob Khan, one of the greatest film director in the history, was not formerly educated. This
film is special because it brought almost a revolution in subcontinent film world.
Music: One of the most memorable and melodious film by Noushad Ali from the 40s. Naushad Ali is
regarded as one of the greatest Music Directors of Indian Cinema.
Assistent: Ghulam Ahamd (Pakeeza fame)
Lyrics: Tanvir Naqvi was a relative of Madam Noor Jehan and a very successful lyricist....
Singers: Noor Jehan was the most impressive film personality in the Indo-Pak film history. She was
dominating since her debut as a child star (1935).
Surayya was another famous singer/actress from the 40s and 50s. Born in Lahore, she debuted as a child
star with Taj Mahal (1941).
Shamshad Begum was the first generation of top Punjabi film singers (followd by Zubaida Khanum (in
the 50s) and Madam Noor Jehan (from 40s-90s), respectively). One can't forget Shamshad's mega hit
Punjabi songs as:
- Batti baal ke Banerey utte rakhni aan
- Meri lagdi kise na wekhi, te tutdi nu jugg janda
- Ni tutt jaye Rail Gadiye, too rok leya Chann mera
- Jutt Kurdian toon darda mara
Mohammad Rafi and Surindra ­ all from Punjab, Lahore.
Film songs:
Tera Khilona tuta Balik, hai qismat ne tujh ko...
Mohammad Rafi
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Aaja meri barbad mohabbat ke sahare ...
Madam Noor Jehan
Mere bachpan ke saathi mujhe bhool na jana...
Madam Noor Jehan
Jawan hai mohabbat, haseen hai zamana...
Madam Noor Jehan
Kya mil geya Bhagwan tumhe dil ko dukha ke...
Madam Noor Jehan
The Last Big "Pakistani" film before partition
Shoukat Arts Productions
JUGNU
Urdu/Hindi
Released on: 1947
This film was the last big film by Madam Noor Jehan and her husband director Shaukat Hussain Rizvi
before partition. It was a big musical and romantic film. Madam Noor Jehan was on peak of her film career
as singer and film heroine. Dillip Kumar and Mohammad Rafi got breakthrough from this film.
Actors: Dilip Kumar - the acting legend - got breakthrough from this mega hit film. He was born in
Peshawar...
Music: Feroz Nizami, completed hat trick of three great musical film, first Jugnu in 1947, then Chann We
in 1951 and Dopatta 1952 - all with Noor Jehan, & G. A. Chishti was a legendry musician in Punjabi films.
He dominated Pakistani film music until the beginning of the 70s.
Singers: Madam Noor Jehan, Shamshad Begum.
Mohammad Rafi was a legend and he left behind a rich legacy of songs in Urdu/Hindi, Punjabi and many
other languages. Started his singing career from Lahore...
Roshan Ara Begum was acclaimed the best exponent of Kirana gharana style of khayal singing in the
subcontinent...
Pakistani artists started their film careers before 1947
A.R.Kardar (actor/director)
Daughters of Today
1924
M. Ismael (actor)
Daughters of Today
1924
Rafiq Ghaznavi (musician)
Heer Ranjha
1932
Ghulam Mohammad (actor)
Madhuri
1933
Zahoor Shah (actor)
Majnoo
1935/1933
Mukhtar Begum (singer/actress)
Naveli Dulhan
1933
Noor Mohammad Charlie (comedian)
Nadra
1933
A. Shah Shikarpuri (comedian)
Fadaye Toheed
1934
Nazir (actor/director)
Aab-e-Hayyat
1934
Master Ghulam Haidar (musician)
Sanjog ki Seerhi
1935
Najmul Hassan (actor)
Jawani ki hawa
1935
Noor Jehan (singer/actress)
Pind di Kurri
1935
S.M. Yousuf (director)
Bharat ka Laal
1935
Rekha (actress)
Neela
1935
Kumar (actor)
Hamari Betian
1936
Ajay Kumar (actor)
Mard ka Bacha
1936
G.A.Chishti (musician)
Sohni Mehinwal
1937
Agha Salim Raza (actor)
Gul Bakawli
1939
Ajmal (actor)
Gul Bakawli
1939
Khursheed Anwar (musician)
Kurmai
1940
Gul Zaman (actor)
Mard-e-Punjab
1940
Najam Naqvi (director)
Puttar Millan
1940
Zahoor Raja (actor)
Pooja
1940
Majeed (actor)
Sandesa
1940
Ragni (actress)
Himmat
1940
W.Z. Ahmad (director)
Ek Raat
1942
Masood Pervez (actor/director)
Mangti
1942
Shoukat Hussain Rizvi (director)
Khandan
1942
Hamaliya Wala (actor)
Kis ki Bivi
1942
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M. Sadiq (director)
Namastey
1943
Sheikh Iqbal (actor)
Champa
1945
Sharif Nayyar (director)
Laila Majnu
1945
Rasheed Attre (musician)
Sheerin Farhad
1945
Meena Shori (actress)
Rutt Rangeeli
1945
Asha Posley (actress)
Champa
1945
Renuka Devi (actress)
Ghulami
1945
Feroz Nizami (musician)
Ammar Raj
1946
Master Inayat Hussain (musician)
Kamli
1946
Luqman (director)
Hamjoli
1946
Nisar Bazmi (musician)
Jamna Paar
1946
Nashaad (musician)
Dildar
1947
Nasreen (actress)
Ek Roz
1947
Shah Nawaz (actor)
Elan
1947
Sudhir (actor)
Farz
1947
Santosh (actor)
Ahensa
1947
Rehana (actress)
Saajan
1947
Talish (actor)
Saraye ke baad
1947
Ilyas Kashmiri (actor)
Malka
1947
Tufail Farooqi (musician)
Dekho Jee
1947
Fateh Ali Khan (musician)
Director
1947
First Color film:
Ardeshir Irani's Kisan Kanya (1937) was the first color film. Sohrab Modi's Jhansi Ki Rani (1953) was the
first Techni-color film shot in India.
After partition
1948
Inaugural Pakistani film.
Teri Yaad (Urdu)
Teri Yaad became the first ever released film but not the first film production in Pakistan. It was completed
in a record time. Lahore was the third biggest film center in sub-continent - after Bombay and Calcutta -
and there were many films under production in 1947
Released in: Perbhat (Sanober) Cinema, Lahore on August 7th, 1948. It was an Eid-ul-Fittar Day.
Teri Yaad was a dead flop film and the only attraction was film hero Nasir Khan, who was brother of the
legendry Dillip Kumar. Asha Poslay was introduced as heroine, but she never became a successful film
heroine. Her father Nath, was music director of this film.
Music: Inayat Ali Naath
Lyrics: Qateel Shafai became the first film poet in Pakistan. He had a long and successful film career...
Singers: Munawar Sultana, Asha Poslay & Ali Bakhsh Zahoor
1949
Pheray
First Silver Jubilee Punjabi Film.
The first ever Punjabi and the sixth film in the list of released Pakistani films celebrated a great success in
cinemas. Veteran Producer and Director Nazir got the honour to become the first Silver Jubilee film maker.
He was also the only choice as hero in 1949.
Pakistans first ever produced Punjabi film Pheray was a re-make of Nazirs Indian urdu/hindi film "Gaon ki
Gori" (1945). It was a big musical hit and the Music Director G. A. Chishti wrote, composed and recorded
six songs of this film in a single day! Chishti was also the most productive Music Director in the first 25
years of Pakistan.
Music: G. A. Chishti
Singers: Munawar Sultana & Inayat Hussain Bhatti
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Changes the films brought
Entertainment.
Cinema houses - a new business.
Jobs in thousands for acting, direction, music, sets, lighting, recording, cinematography etc.
Billboards all over in so much color - landscape changed.
Manifested culture and in return influenced culture ­ dresses, languages, living style, harmony etc.
Strong expression against hated figures in society, oppressors- at least can see on screen.
Boldness, vulgarity, obscenity ­ the dark side of films.
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Table of Contents:
  1. MASS COMMUNICATION AN OVERVIEW:Relationships, Power
  2. EARLY MASS COMMUNICATION AND PRINTING TECHNOLOGY
  3. SEVEN CENTURIES OF MASS COMMUNICATION FROM PRINTING TO COMPUTER
  4. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION AND EARLY COMMUNICATION MODELS
  5. COMMUNICATION MODELS GRAPHIC PRESENTATION OF COMPLEX ISSUES
  6. TYPES AND FORMS OF COMMUNICATION:Inter personal, Combination
  7. MESSAGE ROOT OF COMMUNICATION I:VERBAL MESSAGE, Static Evaluation
  8. MESSAGE ROOT OF COMMUNICATION II:Conflicts, Brevity of Message
  9. EFFECTS OF COMMUNICATION:Helping Out Others, Relaxation
  10. COMMUNICATION AND CULTURE:Enculturation, Acculturation
  11. LANGUAGE IN COMMUNICATION:Polarization, Labeling, Static meanings
  12. STEREOTYPING A TYPICAL HURDLE IN MASS COMMUNICATION:Stereotype Groups
  13. MASS MEDIA HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE:Early analysis on manuscripts
  14. EMERGENCE OF PRINT MEDIA AROUND THE WORLD:Colonial journalism
  15. TELEGRAPH DOES MIRACLE IN DISTANCE COMMUNICATION TELEX AND TELEPHONE ENTHRALL PRINT COMMUNICATION
  16. TYPES OF PRINT MEDIA:Newspapers, Magazines, Books
  17. PRESS FREEDOM, LAWS AND ETHICS NEW DEBATE RAGING STILL HARD
  18. INDUSTRIALIZATION OF PRINT PROCESSES:Lithography, Offset printing
  19. EFFECTS OF PRINT MEDIA ON SOCIETY:Economic ideas, Politics
  20. ADVERTISING HAND IN HAND WITH MEDIA:Historical background
  21. RENAISSANCE AND SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION: ROLE OF PRINT MEDIA:Science
  22. RECAP:Elements of communication, Books, Printing, Verbal Message
  23. MEDIA MANAGEMENT:Division, Business section, Press
  24. IMAGES IN MASS COMMUNICATION INVENTION OF PHOTOGRAPHY:Portrait photography
  25. MOTION PICTURES A NEW WAY IN MASS COMMUNICATION-I:Definition
  26. MOTION PICTURES A NEW WAY IN MASS COMMUNICATION (Cont...):Post-Studio Era
  27. FILM MEDIA IN SUBCONTINENT AND PAKISTAN-I:Accusations of plagiarism
  28. FILM MEDIA IN SUBCONTINENT AND PAKISTAN (II) & ITS EFFECTS:First Color film
  29. PROPAGANDA:Types in another manner, Propaganda in revolutions
  30. RADIO A BREAKTHROUGH IN MASS COMMUNICATION:What to broadcast
  31. EFFECTS OF RADIO ON SOCIETY:Entertainment, Information, Jobs
  32. TELEVISION A NEW DIMENSION IN MASS COMMUNICATION:Early Discoveries
  33. TV IN PAKISTAN:Enthusiasm, Live Broadcast, PTV goes colored
  34. EFFECTS OF TELEVISION ON SOCIETY:Seeing is believing, Fashion
  35. PUBLIC RELATIONS AND MASS COMMUNICATION - I:History, Case Study
  36. PUBLIC RELATIONS AND MASS COMMUNICATION - II:Audience targeting
  37. ADVERTISING BEYOND PRINT MEDIA:Covert advertising
  38. IMPACT OF ADVERTISING:Trial, Continuity, Brand Switching, Market Share
  39. MEDIA THEORIES:Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory
  40. NEW MEDIA IN MASS COMMUNICATION:Technology forcing changes
  41. GLOBALIZATION OF MEDIA:Media and consumerism, Media centralization
  42. MEDIA MERGENCE:Radio, TV mergence, Economic reasons
  43. MASS MEDIA IN PRESENT AGE:Magazine, Radio, TV
  44. CRITICISM ON MEDIA:Sensationalize, Biasness, Private life, obscenity
  45. RECAP:Legends of South Asian Film Industry, Radio, Television, PTV goes colored