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Principles of Management

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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Lesson 12.36
EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
Expectancy Theory is the theory that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation
that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.
Three relationships are important to this theory.
1.
Effort-performance linkage (expectancy) is the probability perceived by the individual that exerting
a given amount of effort will lead to a certain level of performance.
2.
Performance-reward linkage (instrumentality) is the degree to which an individual believes that
performing at a particular level is instrumental in, or will lead to, the attainment of a desired outcome.
3.
Attractiveness of the reward (valence) is the importance that the individual places on the potential
outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job.
4.
There are four features inherent in the theory.
a.
What perceived outcomes does the job offer the employee?
b.
How attractive do employees consider these outcomes to be?
c.
What kind of behavior must the employee exhibit to achieve these outcomes?
d.
How does the employee view his or her chance of doing what is asked?
5.
The key to understanding expectancy theory is understanding an individual's goal and the linkage
between effort and performance, between performance and rewards, and between rewards and individual
goal satisfaction.
Goal-Setting Theory says that specific goals increase performance, and difficult goals, when accepted,
result in higher performance than easy goals. What do we know about goals as motivators?
1.
Intention to work toward a goal is a major source of job motivation. Specific and challenging goals
are superior motivating forces. Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than do generalized
goals.
2.
Is there a contradiction between achievement motivation and goal setting? No, and here's why.
a.
Goal-setting theory deals with people in general; achievement theory is based only on people who
have a high need for achievement. Difficult goals are still recommended for the majority of employees.
b.
The conclusions of goal-setting theory apply to those who accept and are committed to the goals.
Difficult goals will lead to higher performance only if they are accepted.
3.
Will employees try harder if they participate in the setting of goals?
a.
We can't say that participation is always desirable.
b.
However, participation is probably preferable to assigning goals when the manager expects
resistance.
4.
Will people do better when they get feedback on how well they're progressing toward their goals?
a.
Feedback acts to guide behavior.
b.
Self-generated feedback has been shown to be a more powerful motivator than externally generated
feedback.
5.
What contingencies exist in goal-setting theory? There are four contingencies we need to know
about.
a.
Feedback influences the goal-performance relationship.
b.
Goal commitment is another contingency. Commitment is most likely to occur when goals are
made public, when the individual has an internal locus of control, and when the goals are self-set rather than
assigned.
c.
Self-efficacy is another contingency and refers to an individual's belief that he or she is capable of
performing a task. The higher your self-efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in
a task.
d.
The last contingency that affects goal setting is national culture.
6.
Our conclusion about motivation from goal-setting theory is that intentions, as defined by hard and
specific goals, are a powerful motivating force.
a.
In the proper conditions, they can lead to higher performance.
b.
However, there's no evidence that such goals are associated with increased job satisfaction.
98
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Reinforcement Theory is counter to goal-setting theory. It proposes that behavior is a function of its
consequences.
1.
Reinforcement theory argues that behavior is externally caused.
2.
What controls behavior are reinforcers, which are consequences immediately following a response
that increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated.
3.
Reinforcement theory ignores factors such as goals, expectations, and needs.
4.
It focuses solely on what happens when a person takes some action.
5.
How can the concept of reinforcement be used to explain motivation?
a.
People will most likely engage in a desired behavior if they are rewarded for doing so.
b.
These rewards are most effective if they immediately follow a desired response.
c.
Behavior that isn't rewarded or is punished is less likely to be repeated.
6.
Managers can influence employees' behavior by reinforcing the work behaviors they desire.
Open Book Management
Open-book management is a motivational approach in which an organization's financial statements (the
"books") are opened to and shared with all employees.
1.
The goal of open-book management is to get employees to think like an owner by seeing the
impact their decisions and actions have on financial results.
2.
To be effective, employees have to be taught the fundamentals of financial statement analysis and
what the numbers show.
3.
The style of management demands for involvement of employees in all decision making for
organization involving the transparency of financial statements.
4.
Employees may be treated as business partners so productivity and profitability is enhanced.
Pay-for-performance programs are compensation plans that pay employees on the basis of some
performance measure.
1.
Performance-based compensation is probably most compatible with expectancy theory.
2.
The increasing popularity of pay-for-performance programs can be explained in terms of both
motivation and cost control.
3.
Do pay-for-performance programs work? Studies seem to indicate that they do.
Integrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation
1.
The basic foundation is the simplified expectancy model.
2.
The model also considers the achievement-need, reinforcement and equity theories.
3.
Rewards also play an important role in the model.
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Table of Contents:
  1. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT:The Egyptian Pyramid, Great China Wall
  2. MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS:Why Study Management?
  3. MANAGERIAL ROLES IN ORGANIZATIONS:Informational roles, Decisional roles
  4. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS I.E. POLCA:Management Process, Mistakes Managers Make
  5. MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers
  6. MANAGEMENT IDEAS: YESTERDAY AND TODAY, Anthropology, Economics
  7. CLASSICAL VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Scientific management
  8. ADMINISTRATIVE VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Division of work, Authority
  9. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:The Hawthorne Studies
  10. QUANTITATIVE, CONTEMPORARY AND EMERGING VIEWS OF MANAGEMENT
  11. SYSTEMíS VIEW OF MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION:Managing Systems
  12. ANALYZING ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  13. 21ST CENTURY MANAGEMENT TRENDS:Organizational social Responsibility
  14. UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT WTO AND SAARC
  15. DECISION MAKING AND DECISION TAKING
  16. RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Models of Decision Making
  17. NATURE AND TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS:Decision-Making Styles
  18. NON RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Group Decision making
  19. GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CREATIVITY:Delphi Method, Scenario Analysis
  20. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-I:Methods of Forecasting, Benchmarking
  21. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-II:Budgeting, Scheduling, Project Management
  22. PLANNING: FUNCTIONS & BENEFITS:HOW DO MANAGERS PLAN?
  23. PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans
  24. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO):Developing Plans
  25. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT -1:THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
  26. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT - 2:THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  27. LEVELS OF STRATEGIES, PORTERíS MODEL AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (BCG) AND IMPLEMENTATION
  28. ENTREPRENEURSHIP MANAGEMENT:Why Is Entrepreneurship Important?
  29. ORGANIZING
  30. JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
  31. SPAN OF COMMAND, CENTRALIZATION VS DE-CENTRALIZATION AND LINE VS STAFF AUTHORITY
  32. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC VS VIRTUAL STRUCTURES
  33. LEADING AND LEADERSHIP MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
  34. MASLOWíS NEEDS THEORY AND ITS ANALYSIS
  35. OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  36. EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
  37. MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
  38. BEHAVIORAL AND SITUATIONAL MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
  39. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
  40. UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
  41. GROUP CONCEPTS, STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
  42. UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  43. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  44. CONTROLLING AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION:The control process
  45. CONTROLLING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY