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Information Systems

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Information System (CS507)
LESSON 44
ERP & E-commerce
Organizations do accept that when we talk of E-commerce in real terms, not just having a
website for online information but actually to be able to execute transactions, there has to be an
integrated software up and running. Especially when Consumerism is the prime focus, being
integrated and online will help in better implementation of CRM.
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This is known as the business to business B2B and business to consumer B2C.They have
become buzz words but they are very real. What most ERP's are heading towards are internet
portals. The front end becomes the internet portal and the other businesses and customers can
come in through that.
Gist of the clips
Now consumers and business use the gateway of internet to walk into the business and make
transactions. So Websites with online buying options have become the virtual selling locations
for the business.
44.1  ERP & CRM
Customer has become of critical importance in the modern day business. Early on,
organizations used to focus more on how much has been sold what has been produced. But
now the focus is quite different. Focus has been placed on the requirements of the customer,
providing quality service and quickness of response to customer queries. Analysis of the
customer data from their personal habits to spending one's have become a crucial element of
doing a successful business. ERP has this unique potential to improve the quality of customer
handling.
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Our larger customers who drive most of our business, they conduct budgeting activity for most
of their products, for which they need semi finished or raw materials from us. These
requirements are incorporated in our system even before a purchase order is received from our
customer. So we know well ahead of time what the requirements of our customer will be on a
periodic basis. This gives us time to plan what kinds of raw materials and production capacities
we would require in a given period keeping other orders in view. This makes us well equipped in
our supply chain, the materials to be imported, the delivery times being built into the system for
reordering.
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Thus inventory management becomes more efficient and production bottlenecks are pre-
empted. But as coming back to the customer and starting from the sales forecast, when we
move on the purchase order which is first converted by the system into the sales order. As soon
as the process starts the production planning department can have a look at it and plan a
production order based on that that information is available to the sales people as well. So
whatever process that job has gone through can be accessed by the sales person, whether the
stock is available or not.
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Information System (CS507)
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We all want to know what is receivable from all the customers. Initially we had a system of
having receivables report and analysis of all the customers every ten days. Now with the ERP
system the moment you make any entry in the ERP system, every thing instantaneously gets
updated. Hence sales officer has relevant information available at any point of time. The all
other information about the purchases, supply chain, inventory levels, production process,
delivery times, status of dispatch, etc is available up to date as soon as the data is input. Hence
our current lag time is approximately 3 hours which is much better than the earlier of four
weeks.
Gist of above clips
Customer is of supreme importance. Every thing for a business and starts, revolves around and
ends at the customer. The business processes, the production, the inventory, the after sales
service all should be built and monitored in accordance with the requirements of the customer.
In the modern day world the ERP system helps us to achieve this object the most optimizing
way and eliminates time lags to a substantial level.
44.2  Change management
Change management means to plan, initiate, realize, control, and finally stabilize change
processes on both, corporate and personal level. Implementation of ERP or any other
integration software needs commitment and proper management. Managing change in
implementation projects has become a serious concern for the management.
Types of Change
·
Organizational Development: This is the more gradual and evolutionary approach to
change. It bases on the assumption that it is possible to align corporate objectives with the
individual employees' objectives. In practice, however, this will rarely be possible.
·
Reengineering: This is known as corporate transformation or business transformation. It
is the more radical form of change management, since it challenges all elements of
processes or structures that have evolved over time.
Gist of the clips
Recruitment of specialized personnel is a very important element. Skills of people should
complement in a way to remove deficiencies of each other and to become a fruitful
combination
Is a change inevitable?
A further classification of change can be seen as internal to organization, and external to
organization. Since implementation of ERP is an organization wide activity both in terms of
processes and skill levels required, it can be seen as an Internal Change. Of course external
development like market demands, up-gradation of technology and other similar matters also
necessitates change.
Change has to be planned, monitored and managed before we can get successful and fruitful
results. Where management is deciding to bring in change, it has to ask itself certain questions
and consider issues emerging from the change.
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Factor to consider:
Following factors should be considered in order for change to be successful:
·
Have we got the right leadership and "buy-in" support for the proposed change?
·
Is the proposed change aligned with the strategic plan?
·
What current/future issues/concerns will performance measurement / management
address?
·
What are the implications and barriers to successful implementation?
·
What are the inherent risks/costs of not embracing the change?
·
Who should we target as the key drivers for the "new way we are going to do things round
here?"
·
What processes will we need to change/introduce?
·
How will success be measured and what value will success have for the business and
individual?
·
How do we change people's behavior?
·
Who will feel threatened by the change?
44.3
Phases of Change Management
Change management should not be seen as a one off event. Rather it is a process which is
spread over a period of time and divided into various phases. Various management models
define and segregate change management into various set of phases. However the phases which
we will discuss below shall give a general understanding of what happens in a change
management process. The terms and phases may vary according to management models and
various studies conducted.
·
Shock and Surprise ­ Confrontation with unexpected situation mostly
1. by accident e.g. loss in a business unit or
2. planned e.g. workshops for personal development
·
Denial & Refusal ­ people express their conviction that change is not necessary
·
Rational Understanding ­ People realize tha need for change and find short term solutions
·
Emotional Acceptance ­ if management succeeds in creating willingness for change,
people change their beliefs and behaviour, otherwise change process stops or slows down.
·
Exercising & Learning ­ People start to try new behaviours and processes, as a result will
experience success and failures. Change managers should create easier tasks at start to
create early wins
·
Realization ­ the knowledge gained in previous phase has feed-back effect.
·
Integration ­ LAST PHASE: total link-up is created between newly acquired patterns of
thinking and acting. New behaviors become routine.
Another view of phases
Change management phases can be classified in an alternative way:
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·
Unfreezing -- Preparing a situation for change by disconfirming existing attitudes and
behaviors.
·
Changing -- Taking action to modify a situation by altering the targets of change.
·
Refreezing -- Maintaining and eventually institutionalizing the change.
Why people resist change?
There are various reasons why people feel afraid of the change. The change may act as a favorable
agent for many at the organization. However it is merely the fear of the unknown that in most
cases creates hurdle.
·
Fear of the unknown--mostly the reaction is "God knows what's going to happen!".
·
Lack of good information ­ involvement from the lower levels is not taken by the
management and they are not fully aware of the future happenings.
·
Fear for loss of security ­ Mostly changes lead to down sizing which is termed mostly by
organizations as right sizing.
·
No reason to change ­ no reason sounds convincing to people to accept a change.
·
Fear for the loss of power ­ Mostly changes make organizational structures more
horizontal, flexible resulting into delegation of authority and handing over powers to
lower levels.
·
Lack of resources
·
Bad timing ­ Employees sometimes are approached with a proposal of change when they
are already feeling.
·
Habit ­ people with closed mind are not innovative to learn new things and this may
prove to be a major hurdle in bringing in change.
What can be done about resistance to change?
·
Education and communication ­ Changes bring new things for learning. The employees
should be informed of these and given an opportunity to learn to enhance awareness.
·
Participation and involvement ­ in every step of bringing change, those affected should be
involved and their concerns and views should be given value.
·
Facilitation and support ­ As minds start getting adjusted, those affected should be
facilitated and given time to properly assimilate the newly emerging aspects.
·
Negotiation and agreement ­ in case where resistance is high, terms of agreement may be
settled with dialogue.
·
Manipulation and cooptation ­ Twisting and distorting facts for the sake of seeking
acceptance is becoming a normal practice. If corporate management threatens to close
down a particular manufacturing plant if that plant's employees fail to accept an across-
the-board pay cut, and if the threat is actually untrue, management is using manipulation.
·
Explicit and implicit coercion ­ As a last resort, the application of direct threats or force
upon the resisters. Examples of coercion are threats of transfer, loss of promotions,
negative performance evaluations, and a poor letter of recommendation.
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44.4
Change agents
Successful changes and their management are backed by presence of a change agent. A person or a
team who leads a change project or business-wide initiative by defining, researching, planning,
building business support and carefully selecting volunteers to be part of a change team. Change
Agents must have the conviction to state the facts based on data, even if the consequences are
associated with unpleasantness. Change Agent consciously challenges the status quo, is
comfortable with leading change initiatives with uncertain outcomes and systematically considers
new and better ways of doing things. ERP is such a large scale project that sponsorship from the
senior management is an immediate must. Unless the project itself and the consequential change is
sponsored from the senior level, the chances of success are quite bleak.
44.5
ERP­ Ownership and sponsor ship:
Implementation need the right mix of people ­ both from the business and from the IT side.
Those who think that it's a pure computerization of organization which can be taken solely by the
IT people are wrong. Nor is it a project to be handled solely by the business people. Hence a
balanced mixture of people from IT and business background is required for a successful
implementation.
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Table of Contents:
  1. Need for information, Sources of Information: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary Sources
  2. Data vs. Information, Information Quality Checklist
  3. Size of the Organization and Information Requirements
  4. Hierarchical organization, Organizational Structure, Culture of the Organization
  5. Elements of Environment: Legal, Economic, Social, Technological, Corporate social responsibility, Ethics
  6. Manual Vs Computerised Information Systems, Emerging Digital Firms
  7. Open-Loop System, Closed Loop System, Open Systems, Closed Systems, Level of Planning
  8. Components of a system, Types of Systems, Attributes of an IS/CBIS
  9. Infrastructure: Transaction Processing System, Management Information System
  10. Support Systems: Office Automation Systems, Decision Support Systems, Types of DSS
  11. Data Mart: Online Analytical Processing (OLAP), Types of Models Used in DSS
  12. Organizational Information Systems, Marketing Information Systems, Key CRM Tasks
  13. Manufacturing Information System, Inventory Sub System, Production Sub System, Quality Sub system
  14. Accounting & Financial Information Systems, Human Resource Information Systems
  15. Decision Making: Types of Problems, Type of Decisions
  16. Phases of decision-making: Intelligence Phase, Design Phase, Choice Phase, Implementation Phase
  17. Planning for System Development: Models Used for and Types of System Development Life-Cycle
  18. Project lifecycle vs. SDLC, Costs of Proposed System, Classic lifecycle Model
  19. Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD), Design of the information flow, data base, User Interface
  20. Incremental Model: Evaluation, Incremental vs. Iterative
  21. Spiral Model: Determine Objectives, Alternatives and Constraints, Prototyping
  22. System Analysis: Systems Analyst, System Design, Designing user interface
  23. System Analysis & Design Methods, Structured Analysis and Design, Flow Chart
  24. Symbols used for flow charts: Good Practices, Data Flow Diagram
  25. Rules for DFD’s: Entity Relationship Diagram
  26. Symbols: Object-Orientation, Object Oriented Analysis
  27. Object Oriented Analysis and Design: Object, Classes, Inheritance, Encapsulation, Polymorphism
  28. Critical Success Factors (CSF): CSF vs. Key Performance Indicator, Centralized vs. Distributed Processing
  29. Security of Information System: Security Issues, Objective, Scope, Policy, Program
  30. Threat Identification: Types of Threats, Control Analysis, Impact analysis, Occurrence of threat
  31. Control Adjustment: cost effective Security, Roles & Responsibility, Report Preparation
  32. Physical vs. Logical access, Viruses, Sources of Transmissions, Technical controls
  33. Antivirus software: Scanners, Active monitors, Behavior blockers, Logical intrusion, Best Password practices, Firewall
  34. Types of Controls: Access Controls, Cryptography, Biometrics
  35. Audit trails and logs: Audit trails and types of errors, IS audit, Parameters of IS audit
  36. Risk Management: Phases, focal Point, System Characterization, Vulnerability Assessment
  37. Control Analysis: Likelihood Determination, Impact Analysis, Risk Determination, Results Documentation
  38. Risk Management: Business Continuity Planning, Components, Phases of BCP, Business Impact Analysis (BIA)
  39. Web Security: Passive attacks, Active Attacks, Methods to avoid internet attacks
  40. Internet Security Controls, Firewall Security SystemsIntrusion Detection Systems, Components of IDS, Digital Certificates
  41. Commerce vs. E-Business, Business to Consumer (B2C), Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), E-Government
  42. Supply Chain Management: Integrating systems, Methods, Using SCM Software
  43. Using ERP Software, Evolution of ERP, Business Objectives and IT
  44. ERP & E-commerce, ERP & CRM, ERP– Ownership and sponsor ship
  45. Ethics in IS: Threats to Privacy, Electronic Surveillance, Data Profiling, TRIPS, Workplace Monitoring