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Human Resource Development

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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
Lesson 32
ENVIRONMENT
Environmentalism is a concern for the preservation, restoration, or improvement of the natural environment,
such as the conservation of natural resources, prevention of pollution, and certain land use actions. It often
supports the struggles of indigenous peoples against the spread of globalization to their way of life, which is
seen as less harmful to the environment. The study of practical environmentalism is split into two positions:
the mainstream `anthropocentric' or hierarchic, and the more radical `ecocentric' or egalitarian.
The term environmentalism is associated with other modern terms such as greening, environmental management, resource
efficiency and waste minimization, and environmental responsibility, ethics and justice.
Environmental movement
The Environmental movement (a term that sometimes includes the conservation and green movements) is a
diverse scientific, social, and political movement. In general terms, environmentalists advocate the sustainable
management of resources, and the protection (and restoration, when necessary) of the natural environment
through changes in public policy and individual behavior. In its recognition of humanity as a participant in
ecosystems, the movement is centered around ecology, health, and human rights. Additionally, throughout
history, the movement has been incorporated into religion. The movement is represented by a range of
organizations, from the large to grassroots, but a younger demographic than is common in other social
movements (see green seniors). Due to its large membership, varying and strong beliefs, the movement is not
entirely united.
Popular environmentalism
Environmentalist action has recently led to the development of a new subculture. It is mainly composed of the
educated upper-class. These environmentally conscious types take special pride in their sustainable
consumption patterns, shopping at grocery stores that trumpet earth-friendliness (such as Whole Foods
Market) and buying organic products.
Some environmentalists complain that this group of elites is shopping under the banner of environmentalism
without espousing any of its true ideals. Because organic and sustainable products are often more expensive,
purchasing them has become a mark of wealth. In another form of pretension, the young and single have gone
so far as to even begin labeling themselves 'ecosexual'. Closely akin to the concept of the suave metrosexual,
the ecosexual seeks out mates who share their environmentalist ideals. Thus, environmentalism is not just
about nature anymore-- it's about social connections.
It is argued that this new trend has taken the focus away from the real problems 'true' environmentalists hope
to solve: consumer items offer a deceptively easy, feel-good way to both save the world and one's reputation
simultaneously. Yet, others who espouse the idea that people can effectively 'vote with their dollar' argue that
this new subculture is aiding the environmental cause. By purchasing sustainable products, they are promoting
sustainable business that will be beneficial to the environment, even if the consumers have extraneous purposes
for supporting them.
Dark Greens and Light Greens
Environmentalists are sometimes split up into two groups, Dark and Light Greens. Light Greens are the more
popular and more visible part of the environmental movement, which includes the more famous and public
environmental groups such as Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth and the Sierra Club. Light Greens do not
follow environmentalism as a distinct political ideology, but rather seek greater environmental emphasis within
existing ideologies such as Conservatism, Socialism or Liberalism.
Dark Greens are much more radical than light greens; they tend to believe that all the current political
ideologies (that are referred to as industrialism) are corrupt and naturally lead to environmental degradation as
they do not view mankind as part of the environment but rather as a higher form of life with the right to take
what it wants from the environment. Dark Greens claim that this is caused by the emphasis on growth that
exists within all existing ideologies referred to a `growth mania'. The dark green brand of environmentalism is
associated with ideas of Deep Ecology, Post-materialism, Holism, the Gaia Theory of James Lovelock and the
work of Fritjof Capra. The division between light and dark greens was visible in the fighting between Fundi and
Realo factions of the German Green Party.]
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Human Resource Development (HRM-627)
VU
Environmental organizations and conferences
Environmental organizations can be global, regional, national or local; they can be government-run or private
(NGO). Several environmental organizations, among them the Natural Resources Defense Council and the
Environmental Defense Fund, specialize in bringing lawsuits. Other environmentalist groups, such as the
National Wildlife Federation, World Wide Fund for Nature, Friends of the Earth, the Nature Conservancy, and
the Wilderness Society, disseminate information, participate in public hearings, lobby, stage demonstrations,
and purchase land for preservation. Smaller groups, including Wildlife Conservation International, conduct
research on endangered species and ecosystems. More radical organizations, such as Greenpeace, Earth First!,
and the Earth Liberation Front, have more directly opposed actions they regard as environmentally harmful.
While Greenpeace is devoted to nonviolent confrontation, the underground Earth Liberation Front engages in
the clandestine destruction of property, the release of caged or penned animals, and other acts of sabotage.
On an international level, concern for the environment was the subject of a UN conference in Stockholm in
1972, attended by 114 nations. Out of this meeting developed UNEP (United Nations Environment
Programme) and the follow-up United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. Other
international organizations in support of environmental policies development include the Commission for
Environmental Cooperation (NAFTA), the European Environment Agency (EEA), and the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
Environmental policy is any (course of) action deliberately taken (or not taken) to manage human activities
with a view to prevent, reduce or mitigate harmful effects on nature and natural resources, and ensuring that
man-made changes to the environment do not have harmful effects on humans.
It is useful to consider that Environmental Policy comprises two major terms: environment and policy.
Environment refers to a broad concept consisting of three main dimensions: i.e. an ecological (ecosystems)
dimension, a social (quality of life) dimension and an economic (resource management) dimension. Policy can
be defined as a "course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business or
individual". Thus, environmental policy focuses on problems arising from human impact on the environment,
which retroacts onto human society by having a (negative) impact on human values such as good health or the
'clean and green' environment.
Environmental issues generally addressed by environmental policy include (but are not limited to) air and water
pollution, waste management, ecosystem management, biodiversity protection, and the protection of natural
resources, wildlife and endangered species.
Environmental policy instruments
Environmental policy instruments are tools used by governments to implement their environmental policies.
Governments may use a number of different types of instruments. For example, economic incentives and
market-based instruments such as taxes and tax exemptions, tradable permits, and fees can be very effective to
encourage compliance with environmental policy.
Voluntary measures, such as bilateral agreements negotiated between the government and private firms and
commitments made by firms independent of government pressure, are other instruments used in
environmental policy. Another instrument is the implementation of greener public purchasing programmes.
Often, several instruments are combined in an instrument mix formulated to address a certain environmental
problem. Since environmental issues often have many different aspects, several policy instruments may be
needed to adequately address each one.
Furthermore, instrument mixes may allow firms greater flexibility in finding ways to comply with government
policy while reducing the uncertainty in the cost of doing so. However, instrument mixes must be carefully
formulated so that the individual measures within them do not undermine each other or create a rigid and cost-
ineffective compliance framework. Also, overlapping instruments lead to unnecessary administrative costs,
making implementation of environmental policies more costly than necessary In order to help governments
realize their environmental policy goals, the OECD Environment Directorate studies and collects data on the
efficiency of the environmental instruments governments use to achieve their goals as well as their
consequences for other policies.
Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmentalism
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  2. FOUNDATIONS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR:Attitudes, Personality, Emotional Intelligence
  3. PERCEPTION:Attribution Theory, Shortcuts Frequently Used in Judging Others
  4. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION:Why Choose Big Five Framework?, THE OUTCOME OF FIVE FACTOR MODEL
  5. FIVE FACTOR MODEL:The Basis of Intrinsically Motivated Behavior, Intrinsic Motivation and Values
  6. MOTIVATION:EARLY THEORIES OF MOTIVATION, Designing Motivating Jobs
  7. The Motivation Process:HOW TO MOTIVATE A DIVERSE WORKFORCE?,
  8. INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION:PRINCIPLES OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
  9. THE WORLD BEYOND WORDS:DIFFERENCES BETWEEN VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION, MINDFUL LISTENING
  10. TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS:EGO STATES, Parent Ego State, Child Ego State
  11. TYPES OF TRANSACTIONS:Complementary Transactions, Crossed Transactions, Ulterior Transactions
  12. NEURO-LINGUISTIC-PROGRAMMING
  13. CREATE YOUR OWN BLUEPRINT
  14. LEADERSHIP:ORGANIZATIONAL DEMOCRACY
  15. LEADERSHIP:Environment and Strategic Leadership Link, Concluding Remarks
  16. UNDERSTANDING GROUP BEHAVIOR:Stages of Group Development, Advantages of Group Decision Making
  17. UNDERSTANDING TEAM BEHAVIOR:TYPES OF TEAMS, Characteristics of Effective Teams,
  18. EMOTIONAL FACET:PHYSICAL FACET
  19. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT & THE ROLE OF GOVERNACE:Rule of Law, Transparency,
  20. HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT:The Concept and Its Dimensions, Targets of Development
  21. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI):Methodology,
  22. REPORTS:Criticisms of Freedom House Methodology, GROSS NATIONAL HAPPINESS
  23. SECTORS OF A SOCIETY: SOME BASIC CONCEPTS:PUBLIC SECTOR, PRIVATE SECTOR
  24. NON GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOS):Types, Methods, Management, Citizen organization
  25. HEALTH SECTOR:Health Impact of the Lebanon Crisis, Main Challenges,
  26. A STUDY ON QUALITY OF PRIMARY EDUCATION BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE
  27. ADULT EDUCATION:Lifelong learning
  28. THE PRACTICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ADULT EDUCATION:Problems of Adult Literacy, Strategies for Educating Adults for the Future
  29. TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION:VET Internationally, Technical Schools
  30. ASSESSING THE LINK BETWEEN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL FORMATION AND PERFORMANCE OF A UNIVERSITY
  31. SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION:Social responsibility, Curriculum content
  32. ENVIRONMENT:Dark Greens and Light Greens, Environmental policy instruments
  33. HDI AND GENDER SENSITIVITY:Gender Empowerment Measure
  34. THE PLIGHT OF INDIAN WOMEN:
  35. ENTREPRENEURSHIP:Characteristics of entrepreneurship, Advantages of Entrepreneurship
  36. A REVISIT OF MODULE I & II
  37. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & ECONOMIC GROWTH (1975 TO 2003):
  38. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP:Origins, The Desired Outcomes of PPPs
  39. PRINCIPLES OF PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP (PPP):Situation in Pakistan,
  40. DEVOLUTION REFORMS A NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT:
  41. GOOD GOVERNANCE:Participation, Rule of law, Accountability
  42. MACROECONOMIC PROFILE OF A COUNTRY: EXAMPLE ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN
  43. COORDINATION IN GOVERNANCE: AN EXAMPLE OF EU, The OMC in Social Inclusion
  44. MOBILIZING REGIONAL EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES: THE ASEAN UNIVERSITY NETWORK, A CASE STUDY
  45. GOVERNMENT PRIORITIES AND POLICIES:Role of Government, Socio Cultural Factors in Implementing HRD Programs