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International Relations - IR

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International Relations-PSC 201
VU
LESSON 10
DIPLOMACY
Definitions of Diplomacy
Diplomacy is the management of IR through negotiations or the method by which these relations are
adjusted or managed. Diplomacy tries to achieve the maximum objectives (national interests) with a
minimum of costs in a system of politics where war remains a possibility.
There are two major forms of diplomacy. The simplest and the oldest is bilateral diplomacy between two
states. Bilateral diplomacy is still common with many treaties between two states, and it is a main concern of
embassies. The other form of diplomacy is multilateral diplomacy involving many states.
Formal multilateral diplomacy is normally dated to the Congress of Vienna in the nineteenth century. Since
then, multilateralism has grown in importance. Today most trade treaties, such as the World Trade
Organization (WTO), arms control agreements, such as the Partial Test Ban Treaty and the Comprehensive
Test Ban Treaty, and environmental agreements, such as the Koyoto Accord, are multilateral. The United
Nations (UN) is the most important institution of multilateral diplomacy.
Diplomacy from a Historical Perspective
The ability to practice diplomacy is one of the defining elements of a state, and diplomacy has been
practiced since the first city states were formed millennia ago (around 5th BC). For the majority of human
history diplomats were sent only for specific negotiations, and would return immediately after their mission
concluded.
Diplomats were usually relatives of the ruling family or of very high rank in order to give them legitimacy
when they sought to negotiate with the other state. Envoys eventually became negotiators rather than being
just messengers. During the Middle Ages (6th to 18th century), the scope of diplomacy did not grow much
and diplomats were mostly confined to maintaining archives rather than negotiating them.
In the late middle ages, in Genoa, the Duke of Milan established the first foreign mission. But this was still
diplomacy of the court rather than that of the people.
After the American and French revolutions, diplomacy became more democratic and less aristocratic. The
Congress of Vienna (1815) laid down procedures for diplomatic immunities and defined diplomatic
hierarchies.
How Diplomacy Functions
Diplomacy functions through a network of foreign officers, embassies, consulates, and special missions
operating around the globe. Diplomacy is bilateral in character but as a result of growing international and
regional organizations, it is becoming increasingly multilateral in character.
Diplomacy & Foreign Policy: What's the Difference?
Diplomacy is the method and process by which foreign policy is pursued but it is not a policy onto itself.
Outcome of diplomatic negotiations can effect foreign policy options.
Traditional Versus Modern Diplomacy
Traditional diplomacy assumed that major European powers had special responsibility for maintaining
world peace and the colonies had no more significant diplomatic role than that of satellites. Traditional
diplomacy was professional but secretive and relied on a limited cadre rather than extended diplomatic
channels.
Modern diplomacy is more open and democratic; it requires reciprocal bargains and compromises so it is
not possible for diplomats to spell out a given stance in advance.
Multilateralism is increasingly evident in the practice of modern diplomacy. It includes conference or
summit diplomacy, with behind the scenes preparations by diplomatic officials.
Relevant Vocabulary
Globe: the world
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International Relations-PSC 201
VU
Cadre: particular or specific segment
Outcome: result
Reciprocal: mutual or based on a give and take arrangement:
Summit: meeting involving heads of state (Presidents or Prime Ministers)
Suggested Readings
Students are advised to read the following chapters to develop a better understanding of the various
principals highlighted in this hand-out:
Chapter 4 in `"A Study of International Relations" by Dr. Sultan Khan.
Internet Resources
In addition to reading from the textbook, please visit the following web-pages for this lecture, which
provide useful and interesting information:
Diplomacy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diplomacy
Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT IS INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND WHAT IS ITS RELEVANCE?
  2. APPROACHES TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: THEORIES IN IR
  3. APPROACHES TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS:Traditional Approach
  4. THE NATION-STATE SYSTEM:Further Evolution of Nation-State
  5. THE NATION STATE SYSTEM: BASIC FEATURES OF A NATION-STATE
  6. NATIONAL INTEREST:Criteria for Defining National Interest
  7. NATIONAL INTEREST:Variations in National Interest, Relevant Vocabulary
  8. BALANCE OF POWER (BOP):BoP from a historical perspective
  9. BALANCE OF POWER (CONTINUED):Degree of Polarization, Functions of BoP
  10. DIPLOMACY:How Diplomacy Functions, Traditional Versus Modern Diplomacy
  11. DIPLOMACY (CONTINUED):Diplomatic Procedures & Practices, Functions of Diplomacy
  12. COLONIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM & IMPERIALISM:Judging Colonization
  13. COLONIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM & IMPERIALISM:Types of Neo-Colonialism
  14. COLONIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM & IMPERIALISM:Objectives of Imperialism
  15. NEW INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORDER:Criticism of IEO, NIEO Activities
  16. NEW INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORDER:Prerequisites for the NIEO
  17. NON-ALIGNMENT MOVEMENT:Origin of NAM, NAMís Institutional Structure
  18. NON-ALIGNMENT MOVEMENT (CONTINUED):Cairo Summit, Egypt - 1964
  19. NON-ALIGNMENT MOVEMENT:Criticism of NAM, NAM and Pakistan
  20. THE COLD WAR AND ITS IMPACTS - INTRODUCING THE COLD WAR PHENOMENON
  21. THE COLD WAR AND ITS IMPACTS (CONTINUED):Truman Doctrine, Marshal Plan
  22. THE COLD WAR AND ITS IMPACTS (CONTINUED):End of the Cold War
  23. DISARMAMENT AND ARMS CONTROL:History of Disarmament
  24. DISARMAMENT AND ARMS CONTROL (CONTINUED):Other Disarmament Efforts
  25. THE RELEVANCE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
  26. THE RELEVANCE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (CONTINUED)
  27. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS:Need for IGOs, Categorizing IGOs
  28. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS (CONTINUED):United Nations, Criticism of the UN
  29. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS (CONTINUED):European Union, World Bank
  30. THE ROLE OF DECISION MAKING IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
  31. DECISION MAKING (CONTINUED):Rational Actor Model, Group Politics Model
  32. SYSTEMS APPROACH TO IR:Underlying Assumptions, Elements of the System
  33. SYSTEMS BASED APPROACH (CONTINUED) Ė DISTINCT SYSTEMS IN IR
  34. LIBERALISM AND SOCIAL DEMOCRACY:Neoliberalism
  35. LIBERALISM AND SOCIAL DEMOCRACY (CONTINUED):Liberalism vs. Social Democracy
  36. INTEGRATION IN IR:Preconditions for Integration, Assessing Integration
  37. GLOBALIZATION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS:Advocates of Globalization
  38. THE GLOBAL DIVIDE:World Social Forum, Can the Global Divide Be Bridged?
  39. FOCUS ON FOREIGN INVESTMENTS:Pro-poor Foreign Investments
  40. CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION:Components of a Conflict
  41. CONFLICT RESOLUTION:Creative response, Appropriate assertiveness
  42. THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT:Global Concern for the Environment
  43. THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT:Environmental Concerns and IR, Some Other Issues
  44. HOW IR DIFFER FROM DOMESTIC POLITICS?:Strategies for altering state behavior
  45. CHANGE AND IR:Continuity in IR, Causality and counterfactuals, IR in a nutshell