ZeePedia buy college essays online


Organization Development

<<< Previous Diagnosing Groups and Jobs:Design Components, Fits Next >>>
 
img
Organization Development ­ MGMT 628
VU
Lesson 19
Diagnosing Groups and Jobs
Figure 25: Comprehensive Model for Diagnosing Organizational Systems
Individual-Level Diagnosis:
The lowest level of organizational diagnosis is the individual job or position. An organization consists of
numerous groups; a group, in turn, is composed of several individual jobs. This section discusses the
inputs, design components, and relational fits for diagnosing jobs. The model shown in Figure 25(C) is
similar to other popular job diagnostic frameworks, such as Hackrnan and Oldhamn's job diagnostic survey
and Herzberg's job enrichment model.
Inputs:
Three major inputs affect job design: organization design, group design, and the personal characteristics of
job holders.
Organization design is concerned with the larger organization within which the individual job is the
smallest unit. Organization design is a key part of the larger context surrounding jobs. Technology,
structure, measurement systems, human resources systems, and culture can have a powerful impact on the
way jobs are designed and on people's experiences in jobs. For example, company reward systems can
img
Organization Development ­ MGMT 628
VU
orient employees to particular job behaviors and influence whether people see job performance as fairly
rewarded. In general, technology characterized by relatively uncertain tasks and low interdependency is
likely to support job designs allowing employees flexibility and discretion in performing tasks. Conversely,
low-uncertainty work systems are likely to promote standardized job designs requiring routinized task
behaviors.
Group design concerns the larger group or department containing the individual job. Like organization
design, group design is an essential part of the job context. Group task structure, goal clarity, composition,
performance norms, and group functioning serve as inputs to job design. They typically have a more
immediate impact on jobs than do the larger, organization-design components. For example, group task
structure can determine how individual jobs are grouped together -- as in groups requiring coordination
among jobs or in ones comprising collections of independent jobs. Group composition can influence the
kinds of people who are available to fill jobs. Group performance norms can affect the kinds of job designs
that are considered acceptable, including the level of job holders' performances. Goal clarity helps members
to prioritize work, and group functioning can affect how powerfully the group influences job behaviors.
When members maintain close relationships and the group is cohesive, group norms are more likely to be
enforced and followed.
Personal characteristics of individuals occupying jobs include their age, education, experience, and skills and
abilities. All of these can affect job performance as well as how people react to job designs. Individual
needs and expectations can also affect employee job responses. For example, individual differences in
growth need -- the need for self-direction, learning, and personal accomplishment -- can determine how
much people are motivated and satisfied by jobs with high levels of skill variety, autonomy, and feedback
about results. Similarly, work motivation can be influenced by people's expectations that they can perform
a job well and that good job performance will result in valued outcomes.
Design Components:
Figure 25(C) shows that individual jobs have five key dimensions: skill variety, task identity, task
significance, autonomy, and feedback about results.
Skill variety identifies the degree to which a job requires a range of activities and abilities to perform the
work. Assembly-line jobs, for example, generally have limited skill variety because employees perform a
small number of repetitive activities. Most professional jobs, on the other hand, include a great deal of skill
variety because people engage in diverse activities and employ several different skills in performing their
work.
Task identity measures the degree to which a job requires the completion of a relatively whole, identifiable
piece of work. Skilled craftspeople, such as tool-and-die makers and carpenters, generally have jobs with
high levels of task identity. They are able to see a job through from beginning to end. Assembly-line jobs
involve
only
a
limited
piece
of
work
and
score
low
on
task
identity.
Task significance identifies the degree to which a job has a significant impact on other people's lives.
Custodial jobs in a hospital are likely to have more task significance than similar jobs in a toy factory
because hospital custodians are likely to see their jobs as affecting someone else's health and welfare.
Autonomy indicates the degree to which a job provides freedom and discretion in scheduling the work and
determining work methods. Assembly-line jobs generally have little autonomy: the work pace is scheduled,
and people perform programmed tasks. College teaching positions have more autonomy: professors usually
can determine how a course is taught, even though they may have limited say over class scheduling.
Feedback about results involves the degree to which a job provides employees with direct and clear
information about the effectiveness of task performance. Assembly-line jobs often provide high levels of
feedback about results, whereas college professors must often contend with indirect and ambiguous
feedback about how they are performing in the classroom.
Those five job dimensions can be combined into an overall measure of job enrichment. Enriched jobs have
high levels of skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback about results. They
provide opportunities for self direction, learning, and personal accomplishment at work. Many people find
enriched jobs internally motivating and satisfying.
Fits:
The diagnostic model in Figure 25(C) suggests that job design must fit job inputs to produce effective job
outputs, such as high quality and quantity of individual performance, low absenteeism, and high job
satisfaction. Research reveals the following fits between job inputs and job design:
1.
Job design should be congruent with the larger organization and group designs within which the
job is embedded. Both the organization and the group serve as a powerful context for individual jobs or
positions. They tend to support and reinforce particular job
designs.  Highly  differentiated  and
img
Organization Development ­ MGMT 628
VU
integrated organizations and groups that permit  members to self-regulate their behavior fit enriched jobs.
These larger organizations and  groups promote autonomy, flexibility, and innovation at the individual
job level. Conversely, bureaucratic organizations and groups relying on external controls are congruent with
job designs scoring low on the five key dimensions. Both organizations and groups reinforce standardized,
routine jobs. As suggested earlier, congruence across different levels of organization design promotes
integration of the organization, group, and job levels. Whenever the levels do not fit each other, conflict is
likely to emerge.
2.
Job design should fit the personal characteristics of the jobholders if they are to perform
effectively and derive satisfaction from work. Generally, enriched jobs fit people with
strong growth needs. These people derive satisfaction and accomplishment from
performing
jobs involving skill variety, autonomy, and feedback about results. Enriched jobs also fit
people possessing moderate to high levels of task-relevant skills, abilities, and knowledge.
Enriched jobs generally require complex information processing and decision making;
people must have comparable skills and abilities to perform effectively. Jobs scoring low on the
five job dimensions generally fit people with rudimentary skills and abilities and with low growth
needs. Simpler, more routinized jobs requiring limited skills and experience fit better with people
who place a low value on opportunities for self-  direction and learning. In addition, because
people can grow through education, training, and experience, job design must he monitored and
adjusted from time to time.
Table of Contents:
  1. The Challenge for Organizations:The Growth and Relevance of OD
  2. OD: A Unique Change Strategy:OD consultants utilize a behavioral science base
  3. What an “ideal” effective, healthy organization would look like?:
  4. The Evolution of OD:Laboratory Training, Likert Scale, Scoring and analysis,
  5. The Evolution of OD:Participative Management, Quality of Work Life, Strategic Change
  6. The Organization Culture:Adjustment to Cultural Norms, Psychological Contracts
  7. The Nature of Planned Change:Lewin’s Change Model, Case Example: British Airways
  8. Action Research Model:Termination of the OD Effort, Phases not Steps
  9. General Model of Planned Change:Entering and Contracting, Magnitude of Change
  10. The Organization Development Practitioner:External and Internal Practitioners
  11. Creating a Climate for Change:The Stabilizer Style, The Analyzer Style
  12. OD Practitioner Skills and Activities:Consultant’s Abilities, Marginality
  13. Professional Values:Professional Ethics, Ethical Dilemmas, Technical Ineptness
  14. Entering and Contracting:Clarifying the Organizational Issue, Selecting an OD Practitioner
  15. Diagnosing Organizations:The Process, The Performance Gap, The Interview Data
  16. Organization as Open Systems:Equifinality, Diagnosing Organizational Systems
  17. Diagnosing Organizations:Outputs, Alignment, Analysis
  18. Diagnosing Groups and Jobs:Design Components, Outputs
  19. Diagnosing Groups and Jobs:Design Components, Fits
  20. Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic information:Methods for Collecting Data, Observations
  21. Collecting and Analyzing Diagnostic information:Sampling, The Analysis of Data
  22. Designing Interventions:Readiness for Change, Techno-structural Interventions
  23. Leading and Managing Change:Motivating Change, The Life Cycle of Resistance to Change
  24. Leading and managing change:Describing the Core Ideology, Commitment Planning
  25. Evaluating and Institutionalizing Organization Development Interventions:Measurement
  26. Evaluating and Institutionalizing Organization Development Interventions:Research Design
  27. Evaluating and Institutionalizing Organization Development Interventions
  28. Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Group Process
  29. Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Leadership and Authority, Group Interventions
  30. Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Third-Party Interventions
  31. Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Team Building, Team Building Process
  32. Interpersonal and Group Process Approaches:Team Management Styles
  33. Organization Process Approaches:Application Stages, Microcosm Groups
  34. Restructuring Organizations:Structural Design, Process-Based Structures
  35. Restructuring Organizations:Downsizing, Application Stages, Reengineering
  36. Employee Involvement:Parallel Structures, Multiple-level committees
  37. Employee Involvement:Quality Circles, Total Quality Management
  38. Work Design:The Engineering Approach, Individual Differences, Vertical Loading
  39. Performance Management:Goal Setting, Management by Objectives, Criticism of MBO
  40. Developing and Assisting Members:Career Stages, Career Planning, Job Pathing
  41. Developing and Assisting Members:Culture and Values, Employee Assistance Programs
  42. Organization and Environment Relationships:Environmental Dimensions, Administrative Responses
  43. Organization Transformation:Sharing the Vision, Three kinds of Interventions
  44. The Behavioral Approach:The Deep Assumptions Approach
  45. Seven Practices of Successful Organizations:Training, Sharing Information