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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
In this lecture we will examine the reasons for devolution, the Devolution plan and its purpose
and the areas where devolution has occurred.
In the last lecture it was mentioned that devolution is based on the separation of the executive from
the judiciary, and Article 37 (i) required government to decentralize its operations so as to bring these closer
to the public. The changes included the doing away with the existing three levels of de-concentrated
provincial administration (divisions, districts and tehsils). It meant it was felt that there was need to separate
the three branches of government (i.e. judiciary, executive and legislature).
As we know that the 1973 Constitutions contains Federal and Concurrent List which centralizes
revenue responsibilities by bringing the sales tax under federal control, and the list takes many of the other
responsibilities of provincial government. This centralizes the functions and revenue generation capacity of
provinces. There is thus a significant mismatch between expenditure responsibility and revenue generation
capacity of the lower tiers of government, and the provinces in aggregate depend on federal transfers for
over 78 percent of their revenues. When they depend for revenues from the Federal Government they have
little freedom to plan their own projects.
What Does Devolution Do To The Local State?
Local government as we know is the lowest level or district government. Within districts there are
tehsil and in a tehsil are union councils. As we have learnt that Constitution although has provision for
separation of powers, yet it centralizes power. Devolution Plan 2000 creates local institutions and empowers
these institutions to design development schemes. This is done by creating local governments. In 100
districts there are now 6,458 new local governments and 4 city districts; 306 tehsil municipal administrations
and 29 city towns; and 6,022 union administrations. Under the Devolution Plan there are political reforms,
financial reforms and administrative reforms. Political Reforms had held elections of 126,462 new union
Aim of Devolution Plan
It would be pertinent to outline the aim of Devolution Plan 2000. There are three broad aims of
Devolution Plan. These are:
1. To introduced new blood into a political system considered to be the domain of historically
entrenched interests. It was felt that the old and conventional political leaders discouraged
young politicians to participate in election.
2. To provide positive measures for marginalized citizens which include women, workers,
peasants-to have access to politics; and
3. To improve service delivery of social services in particular. It was argued that if local
governments, appropriately empowered, staffed and resourced, would deliver better primary
health, education and municipal services like water and sanitation. A second service-delivery
objective was to improve the laws about property, labour rights and economic activities were
determined and enforced. Thus, local governments were given responsibilities to regulate and
administer laws on land, labour natural resources.
4. The devolution also aimed to facilitate access to justice. The belief that performance of local
administration, courts and police would improve basic human rights.
Citizen Participation
Since devolution aimed at providing and improving services at the local level, therefore, Citizen
Community Boards (CCBs) are set up for alternate dispute resolution, monitoring of court conduct,
promoting justice, accountability of the police and administrative grievance redressal. The CCB comprise
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
elected people of the area, teachers, doctors, lawyers and other professional. The CCB monitors various
programme implemented at local level.
Administrative Reforms
The executive branch of each district government is divided into 10-13 departments, depending
upon the provinces that carry out its functions. The District Coordination Officer (DCO) established as the
highest-ranking civil servant in the district, heads the District Coordination Department. The office of DC
has been abolished and its powers divided among the district and session judge, district nazim, the District
Police Officer (DPO) and the DCO. An Executive District Officer (EDO) heads each of the remaining
departments. In tehsil the Tehsil Municipal Officer (TMO) performs coordination function similar to EDO.
There are 4 tehsil, taluka or Town Officers (TO), reporting to the TMO: TO (Regulation), TO
(Infrastructure), TO (Finance) and TO Planning).
Provincial Finance Commission (PFC)
Changes in fiscal transfers have been made to complement the devolution of expenditure
responsibilities. On the pattern of federal ­ provincial arrangements transfer to local government were to
the determine by PFC. Local governments have been given the powers to raise some additional revenues
and Provincial Finance Commissions (PFCs) have been established to make awards for distribution of
resources between the province and local governments as well as distribution among local governments.
According to the legislation establishing PFC, the PFC is to evolve a formula for distribution of
resources. The legal provision of the PFC Ordinance aim at the creation of medium-term formula ­ based
transfer system. It took some time for PFC to announce its first award, because the office of PFC was not
set up. The PFC interim award was made in 2002. It was intended to cover the first two quarters of 2003.
Full award was announced by the end of the first quarter Financial Year (FY) 2003 to cover the last two
quarter of FY 2003 and the subsequent 3 years (FY 2004-06). The final award has not been made and
interim awards were extended to cover the rest of FY 2003.
What constitutes a divisible pool for allocation of local share varies somewhat across provinces
with the general practices that provinces make some exceptions from Provincial Consolidated Fund.
The local share of the divisible pool is as follows:
39.8% to districts
40.0% to districts
40.0% to districts
31.0% to districts.
Population is the most important indicator used in all provincial awards.
Following are responsibilities of local government:
Elementary and secondary education,
Primary and secondary health,
Agriculture and intra-district roads.
Towns and tehsils have been assigned municipal service responsibilities-including local
roads and streets, water supply systems and sewers and sanitation.
Although union administrations have not been assigned any major service-delivery
responsibilities, they are responsible for small-scale development projects
Separation of powers
The office of the deputy commissioner was the local face of the government. This office performed
executive, magisterial, judicial and development function. It had all administrative powers to implement
official policy. The creation of the office of the District Coordination Officer has also entailed the abolition
of the office of the district magistrate and the cadre of executive magistrate under deputy commissioner.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
With devolution, all judicial powers of the executive magistracy are now vested in the judiciary;
each civil judge now also acts as a judicial magistrate, while the District and Session Judge exercises the
powers of the erstwhile district magistrate.
The police that functioned under the deputy commissioner now are placed under nazim.
Political Reform
As it has been mentioned that the Devolution Plan also aimed at political reforms. The purpose of
political reforms was to introduce young people in politics. Thus a union council which has a population of
25,000, some 126,462 new union councilors were elected. A union council is composed of 21 directly
elected members. The union nazim becomes member of Zila council and naib nazim member of Tehsil
council. The remaining 19 seats are as follows:
12 Muslim seats (4 are reserved for women), 6 seats for peasants and workers (2 are reserved for
women), 1 seat for minority communities.
Citizen Community Board:
These are bodies at district level that oversee the work of
government departments.
District Coordination Officer:
Is an officer at district level that has to coordinate the
functions of department at district level.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management