ZeePedia Add to Favourites   |   Contact us


Total Quality Management TQM

<<< Previous DEMING CYCLE AND QUALITY TRILOGY:Juran’s Three Basic Steps to Progress Next >>>
 
img
Total Quality Management ­ MGT510
VU
Lesson # 15
DEMING CYCLE AND QUALITY TRILOGY
Deming Cycle
Deming cycle is a tool for continuous improvement and it is a tool for an ongoing effort to improve
products, services or processes. These efforts can seek "incremental" improvement over time or
"breakthrough" improvement all at once.
Among the most widely used tools for continuous improvement is a four-step quality model--the plan-
do-check-act (PDCA) cycle, also known as Deming Cycle or Shewhart Cycle:
·
Plan: Identify an opportunity and plan for change.
·
Do: Implement the change on a small scale.
·
Check: Use data and facts to analyze the results of the change and determine whether it made a
difference.
·
Act: If the change was successful, implement it on a wider scale and continuously assess your
results. If the change did not work, begin the cycle again.
Deming cycle was developed to link the production of a product with consumer needs and focus the
resources of all departments (research, design, production, and marketing) in a cooperative effort to
meet those needs. The Deming Cycle proceeds as follows:
1.
Conduct consumer research and use it in planning the product (PLAN).
2.
Produce the product (DO).
3.
Check the product to make sure it was produced in accordance with the plan (CHECK).
4.
Market the product (ACT).
5.
Analyze how the product is received in the marketplace in terms of quality, cost, and other
criteria (ANALYZE).
1
Plan
5
2
Analyze
Do
The
Deming
Cycle
3
4
Check
Act
DEMING CYCLE
53
img
Total Quality Management ­ MGT510
VU
Other widely used methods of continuous improvement -- such as Six Sigma, Lean Production, and
Kaizen -- emphasize employee involvement and teamwork; measuring and systematizing processes;
and reducing variation, defects and cycle times.
Continuous or Continual?
The terms continuous improvement and continual improvement are frequently used interchangeably. But
some quality practitioners make the following distinction:
·
Continual improvement: a broader term preferred by W. Edwards Deming to refer to general
processes of improvement and encompassing "discontinuous" improvements--that is, many
different approaches, covering different areas.
·
Continuous improvement: a subset of continual improvement, with a more specific focus on
linear, incremental improvement within an existing process. Some practitioners also associate
continuous improvement more closely with techniques of statistical process control.
Juran's Contribution
Joseph M. Juran ranks near Deming in the contributions he has made to quality and the recognition he
has received as a result. His Juran Institute. Inc., in Connecticut, USA is an international leader in
conducting training, research, and consulting activities in the area of quality management. Quality
materials produced by Juran have been translated into 14 different languages.
Juran holds degrees in both engineering and law. The emperor of Japan awarded him the Order of the
Sacred Treasure medal, in recognition of his efforts to develop quality in Japan and to promote
friendship between Japan and the United States. Juran is best known for the following contributions to
the quality philosophy:
Juran's Three Basic Steps to Progress
Juran's Ten Steps to Quality Improvement
The Juran Trilogy
Juran's Three Basic Steps to Progress
Juran's Three Basic Steps to Progress are broad steps that, in Juran's opinion, companies must take if
they are to achieve world-class quality. He also believes there is a point of diminishing return that
applies to quality and competitiveness. An example illustrates his observation:
Say that an automobile maker's research on its cars reveals that buyers drive them an
average of 50,000 kms before trading them in. Applying Juran's theory, this automaker
should invest the resources necessary to make this line of cars run trouble free for
perhaps 60,000 kms. According to Juran, resources devoted to improving quality
beyond this point will run the cost up higher than the typical buyer is willing to pay.
54
img
Total Quality Management ­ MGT510
VU
I. Achieve structured improvements on a continual basis combined with dedication and a sense of
urgency.
II. Establish an extensive training program.
III. Establish commitment and leadership on the part of higher management
Juran's Ten Steps to Quality Improvement
Examining Juran's Ten Steps to Quality Improvement, you will see some overlap between them and
Deming's Fourteen Points. They also mesh well with the philosophy of other quality experts.
1.
Build awareness of both the need for improvement and opportunities for improvement.
2.
Set goals for improvement.
3.
Organize to meet the goals that have been set.
4.
Provide training.
5.
Implement projects aimed at solving problems.
6.
Report progress.
7.
Give recognition.
8.
Communicate results.
9.
Keep score.
10.
Maintain momentum by building improvement into the company's regular systems.
The Juran Trilogy
The Juran Trilogy summarizes the three primary managerial functions.
Quality Planning, Quality Control, and Quality Improvement
55
Table of Contents:
  1. OVERVIEW OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT:PROFESSIONAL MANAGERIAL ERA (1950)
  2. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND TOTAL ORGANIZATION EXCELLENCE:Measurement
  3. INTEGRATING PEOPLE AND PERFORMANCE THROUGH QUALITY MANAGEMENT
  4. FUNDAMENTALS OF TOTAL QUALITY AND RATERS VIEW:The Concept of Quality
  5. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND GLOBAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE:Customer Focus
  6. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING FOR QUALITY AT OFFICE
  7. LEADERS IN QUALITY REVOLUTION AND DEFINING FOR QUALITY:User-Based
  8. TAGUCHI LOSS FUNCTION AND QUALITY MANAGEMENT
  9. WTO, SHIFTING FOCUS OF CORPORATE CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL MODEL OF MANAGEMENT
  10. HISTORY OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT PARADIGMS
  11. DEFINING QUALITY, QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND LINKS WITH PROFITABILITY
  12. LEARNING ABOUT QUALITY AND APPROACHES FROM QUALITY PHILOSOPHIES
  13. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT THEORIES EDWARD DEMING’S SYSTEM OF PROFOUND KNOWLEDGE
  14. DEMING’S PHILOSOPHY AND 14 POINTS FOR MANAGEMENT:The cost of quality
  15. DEMING CYCLE AND QUALITY TRILOGY:Juran’s Three Basic Steps to Progress
  16. JURAN AND CROSBY ON QUALITY AND QUALITY IS FREE:Quality Planning
  17. CROSBY’S CONCEPT OF COST OF QUALITY:Cost of Quality Attitude
  18. COSTS OF QUALITY AND RETURN ON QUALITY:Total Quality Costs
  19. OVERVIEW OF TOTAL QUALITY APPROACHES:The Future of Quality Management
  20. BUSINESS EXCELLENCE MODELS:Excellence in all functions
  21. DESIGNING ORGANIZATIONS FOR QUALITY:Customer focus, Leadership
  22. DEVELOPING ISO QMS FOR CERTIFICATION:Process approach
  23. ISO 9001(2000) QMS MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITY:Issues to be Considered
  24. ISO 9001(2000) QMS (CLAUSE # 6) RESOURCES MANAGEMENT:Training and Awareness
  25. ISO 9001(2000) (CLAUSE # 7) PRODUCT REALIZATION AND CUSTOMER RELATED PROCESSES
  26. ISO 9001(2000) QMS (CLAUSE # 7) CONTROL OF PRODUCTION AND SERVICES
  27. ISO 9001(2000) QMS (CLAUSE # 8) MEASUREMENT, ANALYSIS, AND IMPROVEMENT
  28. QUALITY IN SOFTWARE SECTOR AND MATURITY LEVELS:Structure of CMM
  29. INSTALLING AN ISO -9001 QM SYSTEM:Implementation, Audit and Registration
  30. CREATING BUSINESS EXCELLENCE:Elements of a Total Quality Culture
  31. CREATING QUALITY AT STRATEGIC, TACTICAL AND OPERATIONAL LEVEL
  32. BIG Q AND SMALL q LEADERSHIP FOR QUALITY:The roles of a Quality Leader
  33. STRATEGIC PLANNING FOR QUALITY AND ADVANCED QUALITY MANAGEMENT TOOLS
  34. HOSHIN KANRI AND STRATEGIC POLICY DEPLOYMENT:Senior Management
  35. QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD) AND OTHER TOOLS FOR IMPLEMENTATION
  36. BASIC SQC IMPROVEMENT TOOLS:TOTAL QUALITY TOOLS DEFINED
  37. HOW QUALITY IS IMPLEMENTED? A DIALOGUE WITH A QUALITY MANAGER!
  38. CAUSE AND EFFECT DIAGRAM AND OTHER TOOLS OF QUALITY:Control Charts
  39. STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL (SPC) FOR CONTINUAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
  40. STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL….CONTD:Control Charts
  41. BUILDING QUALITY THROUGH SPC:Types of Data, Defining Process Capability
  42. AN INTERVIEW SESSION WITH OFFICERS OF A CMMI LEVEL 5 QUALITY IT PAKISTANI COMPANY
  43. TEAMWORK CULTURE FOR TQM:Steering Committees, Natural Work Teams
  44. UNDERSTANDING EMPOWERMENT FOR TQ AND CUSTOMER-SUPPLIER RELATIONSHIP
  45. CSR, INNOVATION, KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND INTRODUCING LEARNING ORGANIZATION