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Human Relations

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Human Relations­ MGMT611
Lesson 02
Culture is that complex hold which includes knowledge, beliefs, art, norms, customs and any other habit
acquired by a man as a member of a society".(Advertiler)
There are many capacities with in an individual which are developed through the culture for example in
Pakistani culture,
We greet each other especially our elders by SALAAM.
If we are going in a bus, and see an elderly lady standing the youngster would naturally offer his/her
seat to the lady.
Beliefs and knowledge guide us how to go about and handle different situations e.g. if u see a child crying
bitterly on the roadside you would stop to ask him why he is crying? And would attempt to solve his
problem whether he is your child or some one else's. You would help the child because of your believe
system which is a product of a certain culture.
Cultures are becoming more and more complexed because of many reasons. The cultures are
interconnected, People learn different values, different ways of doing things when they interact with people
from other cultures. That is creating new complexity and secondly that there are sub-cultures with in each
culture. Even in Pakistani culture we have several sub cultures e.g. Sindhi, Punjabi, Bloch, Pashto culture
etc. People are learning different values from different people around the world as they travel to different
countries. These capacities are creating diversity in our own culture also. It has become more important
then ever and difficult to understand the different situations and to handle them.
Human relations are important for better understanding of people and how to relate with different human
beings and making a teams performance better. In an organization, if a Manager or a Supervisor is
interested in getting maximum work done by the employees, He can accomplish this goal more effectively if
he understands the employees and is able to make an accurate assessment about them. It is possible that
some individuals in the organization, value their respect more than the monitory or financial rewards. These
individuals come from a fluent family where they value respect in the institution more than money. Such a
person would work harder if you give him respect on their other hand if another person is hard up and in
need of money, he is working to make ends meet. Bonus or monitory reward will make him work harder
and will be a motivating force for him to keep up his hard work. It is important that the supervisor or the
manager understands the individuals, as well their needs, then he will be in better position to get optimum
work done by the employees.
Definition of sub culture:
"Set of people with different set of behaviors and beliefs which differentiates them from a larger culture of which they are a part".
In other words sub-culture helps in producing smaller cultural groups as youth cultures, army officer's
culture, elite culture etc. all form different groups having different cultural impact on capacities, beliefs and
knowledge. Similarly, urban and rural people have different knowledge, beliefs and values, in other words
both urban and rural areas have a particular culture with different ways of doing things and different ways
of perceiving things. The youth culture has the physical strength and energy and a brave. The elderly have
the wisdom and knowledge. They have the experience of life and can advice the youth on different aspects
of life. So the sub cultures provide different individuals with different knowledge, beliefs, ideas and
experiences. If a person does something wrong, the sub culture has its ways of getting the person know that
such an act is disapproved by the people in the culture.
The culture also provides "A social system" which is a pattern of social acts through which one gets to
know the dos and don'ts. Social group is an aggregate of people, this social group may be a smaller social
group which imparts certain traits in certain individuals, e.g. friendly, unfriendly, cooperative and un-
cooperative behavior etc. the social group with which an individual acts has a great impact on person's
Human Relations­ MGMT611
Social group is one in which the individual's interacts frequently and spent more time in it therefore they
have more influence on the personality of an individual. Peer group is an example of social group the
individuals have same characteristics in it. A circle of close friends with whom they spent their time, relax
and talk about different things.
Definition of Personality
Personality is a sum total of habits, traits, characteristics of an individual. It is actually a force or power to
do things. Some people have more power and some have less e.g. an army officer has the power and
knowledge about security issues whereas a professor may have knowledge and powers on educational
Another important aspect of personality is intelligence quotient or IQ. In a job situation employers are
interested it see how quickly employees can pick up instructions, learn more new skills and adapt to the
change in demands such skills are rewarded and helpful in developing a successful career for the individuals
and increase in organizations profit.
In today's organizations people from diverse cultures and sub-cultures come to work. If some one comes
from a rural or urban back ground they will have different ways of looking at different entities which makes
it harder to deal with them. It is difficult to get work done by these people because they will not work if
they are dealt with in same monotonous manner. How different people see different things because of their
cultural back ground. In an organization, when individuals are asked to perform a task every one may not be
willing to do it depending on how they perceive their orders. Human relations becomes important in such
situations if the supervisor can access the situation, mood, and personality of the employees and then give
orders and get he work done. The supervisors should appreciate individual diversity and act accordingly.
There are different personality types introvert, extrovert, tuff, tender, aggressive, passive etc. there are
different types are people around the world.
Types of Persons
A person is an entity having a distinct identity with certain distinguishable and persistent characteristics. In
the most common sense, a person is "a human being regarded as an individual. Some other characteristics
used to define a 'person' include personal identity, self-awareness, individuality, and a sense of self that
persists through time.
1.  Type A
The Type A personality is characterized as fast moving, hardworking, time conscious, comparative,
impatient and preoccupied with work.
2.  Type B
The Type B personality is the opposite of Type A which is commonly associated with stress and is usually
liked by the organizations today.
Table of Contents:
  1. HUMAN RELATIONS:Some Guidelines for Effective Human Relations, Communication has 3meanings
  2. CULTURE AND PERSONALITY:Definition of sub culture, Definition of Personality, Types of Persons
  4. PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR:Three concepts of personality, Bias in Perception
  5. PERCEPTION AND GROUP BEHAVIOR:Characteristics of Groups, Individual and Group Behavior
  6. ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR:Types of Attitudes, Steps to turn attitude into action
  7. PERSONAL MOTIVATION AND ACHIEVEMENT:Needs and Motivation, Self-discipline and motivation
  8. SOLVING PROBLEMS SKILLFULLY:Problem solving and cognition, Ways to solve problems
  9. CREATIVITY IN PROBLEM SOLVING:Barriers to creativity, Tips to solve problems creatively
  10. HANDLING PERSONAL ISSUES:Self-Defeating Behaviour, Positive attitude to tackle personal problems
  12. COMMUNICATION AND HUMAN RELATIONS:Process of communication, Improving gender barriers to communication
  13. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION:To improve listening skills, Types of organizational communication
  14. UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION STYLES:Modeling communication style, Sociability continuum
  15. SELF-ESTEEM:Building process of self-esteem, Self-esteem and public image
  16. BUILDING SELF-CONFIDENCE:The importance of self-confidence and self-efficacy, Balanced Self-Confidence:
  17. BECOMING A LEADER-1:Assessing leadership role, Traits and Characteristics of Effective Leaders
  18. BECOMING A LEADER-II:Theories of leadership, Developing leadership potential
  19. GLOBALIZATION AND CROSS-CULTURAL DIFFERENCES:Religious Values and Bicultural Identities
  20. IMPROVING CROSS-CULTURAL COMPETENCE:Strategies to improve cross-cultural relations, More steps to improve Cultural Relations
  21. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH MANAGERS:Impressing your manager, Coping with a problem manager
  22. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CO-WORKERS:Make Co-workers feel important, Maintain Honest and Open Relationships
  23. BUILDING GOOD RELATIONS WITH CUSTOMERS:Salesperson Represents the Business, Approaching the Customer, Excuses vs. Objections
  24. CHOOSING A CAREER-1:Ten Myths about Choosing a Career, Attitude toward and Perceptions about Myself
  25. CHOOSING A CAREER-II:Choosing a career and developing a portfolio Career, Suggestions for career Preparation
  26. FINDING A JOB:Targeting your job search, The Internet and Résumé Database Services, Extreme Job Hunting
  27. SIGNIFICANCE OF RESUME:Major types of resumes, Electronic Submission of the Résumé
  28. IMPROVING INTERVIEW SKILLS:Successful interview, Knowing the employer or Organization
  29. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-1:Reasons of procrastination, Techniques for Reducing Procrastination
  30. IMPROVING WORK HABITS-2:Developing the proper attitudes and values, Time-management techniques
  32. TAKING CONTROL OF YOURSELF:Develop Outstanding Interpersonal Skills, Business etiquettes
  33. EXERTING CONTROL ON OUTSIDE ENVIRONMENT:Important communication tip, Exerting control over the outside world
  34. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-1:Your personal financial plan, Steps in budget making
  35. MANAGING PERSONAL FINANCES-2:Basic investment principles, Tolerance for Investment Risks, Types of investments
  36. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-1:Finding happiness and enhancing your personal life, The key to happiness
  37. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-2:The Five Principles of Psychological Functioning, Your mind and Happiness
  38. ACHIEVING HAPPINESS-3:Need for intimacy, Working out issues with relationships
  39. APATHY AND ITS REMEDIES:Let us try to understand the various definitions of apathy, Coping strategies for apathy
  40. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-1:Influence of Culture, Common ethical problems
  41. ENHANCING PERSONAL ETHICS-2:Common ethical problems, Guidelines for Behaving Ethically
  42. HELPING OTHERS GROW:Being a Nurturing, Positive Person, A list of mentoring behaviour, Coaching skills and techniques
  43. REVIEW-I:What is a Human Relation?, Meanings of Communication, Two types of stress, Some personal problem, Communication style
  44. REVIEW-II:Steps to build self-confidence, Globalization, Building Good Relations with Co-workers, Good work habits
  45. REVIEW-III:New model of career advancement, Choosing your investment, Tactics for Dealing with Difficult People