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Change Management

COURSE ORIENTATION:Course objectives, Reading material, Scope of the subject Next >>>
 
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Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
LESSON #1
COURSE ORIENTATION
Norms Setting
Most of the time first or earlier sessions are meant to build norms which entail course expectations,
scope and objectives of the course and host of consideration for understanding and learning this
course appropriately.
Course Expectations
What is considered essential for the student of advanced courses on Management like this one is to
have good grasp over pre-requisite or fundamental courses of management such as "Principles of
Management", "Human Resources Management" and "Organization Behavior". Therefore unless
you are well versed with the basic management concepts better understanding and comprehension
of this course will be difficult.
As this is an advanced course on management so in case of difficulty or to seek clarification - you
have to be in an interactive mode (and to give us feed back very regularly).
Course objectives
1. To develop significant level of understanding of change-management literature: conceptual
framework, theories, typologies, strategies and techniques.
2. To understand change-management phenomenon ­ especially how managers successfully
manage change in organization.
3. Over this entire course is designed to help students in building and developing their analytical
and applied management skills in context of business organizations.
Learning the Subject's Vocabulary
Every subject or discipline has its own vocabulary and terminology. For examples doctors,
engineers & Accountants express themselves in the language of their profession not only when they
are on job but also in social domain as well. Why? Because the professional training and approach
they learn and develop also influences their socio-psychological thinking and life style and
facilitates for resolving problems in ordinary day life. The subject we are concerned with is more
related with social behavior than that of medicine, engineering and accounting etc. Therefore
imperative for us is not only to learn and understand but one has to develop ability to express
ordinary day life phenomena in the subject's vocabulary.
Reading material
Books: Understanding Organization by Charles Handy, published in 1976
Gods of Management by Charles Handy in 1995
Organization Culture and Leadership by Edgar Schein
Change Management: A Guide to Effective Implementation, by Robert Paton & Mc
Calman
Articles: I particularly emphasize students to develop a practice to follow and rely on research
articles more than books. Nonetheless one thing is important to know that not all published and
available articles especially on internet have authenticity and credibility. I recommend only those
published in the leading and international research journal such as available on HEC data base, or
now the Google Scholar is an important source of getting access to the scholars of repute. Therefore
students must have the skills to differentiate good reading material from that of academically junk
substance. Here is one such criterion to identify and hunt for good article. First is to know the
author, his qualification, repute and belongingness (to any school, institution or university). Second
is through the quality of publication (where it gets published?). Normally journals have reputation
and ranking in terms of prestige and impact. For instance related to management (and change
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Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
management) such journals are ranked as of higher order quality like Academy of Management
Review, Administrative Science Quarterly, Organization Studies, Journal of Management Studies,
Journal of Organization Behavior and Human Relations to name few. Finally, articles are
considered of better worth for their citation in references or the article is written by using quality
and authentic references. Journal of Change management is also suggested in particular for students
to follow throughout the course.
A good starting point would be to consult Managing change through manager and organization
development (Chapter-1 of Harold Koontz's text book on management) Management: A Global
Perspective 10th edition.
Organization Change and Stress Management (Ch -17 of Stephen P. Robbins text book on
Organizational Behaviour)
Similarly Frederick Luthan's book on organization is also generally relevant where he talked about
managing diversity, learning, creating and designing organization culture
Other leading authors on the subject which a student must consult are Chris Argyris, Edgar Schein,
D. Schon, Peter Senge, Karl Weick, Peter Drucker, Hannan & Freeman, Quinn, James March,
Herbert Simon, Michael Beer, Nohria
The HEC's digital library provides access to these leading scholars and journals through data bases
like J-store; Springer link etc
Examination & Assessment Perspective (Knowledge, Analysis, Evaluation & Application)
Students are required to possess, develop and demonstrate the following set of skills from
examination point of view. First is to have knowledge and understanding of terms, definition of the
specific content and subject. Moreover, they should be able to analyze the problems and issues by
differentiating and distinguishing concepts, implications of theories and making valid
generalization and inferences. Third is evaluation. Different scholars use different concepts for
similar observed phenomenon and come forth with the same term or concept but with different
meanings and explanations. Therefore academics are concerned with coining terms and giving
meaning which often compete with each other. The job of a student is to comprehend, evaluate and
synthesize such differing and competing ideas, models and explanations. Final is the application of
generalizations and theories in particular context of organization and nations. For example
organizations differ with each other in terms of their context (size, number and industry etc.)
Therefore students ought to know the application of any theory model or concept which is relevant
and valid. The skills which are valued most and considered superior by Examiners at this stage and
in this subject are of analysis, application and evaluation as against mere possession of knowledge
which is just a function of memory. As far as application is concerned student must take caution or
special note of level of analysis while describing or applying any concept related to change
management. The level of analysis may be individual, group like department or production unit,
business or corporation, organization or nation etc. Similarly it may be public or corporate sector,
or small, medium or large organization.
Another important advice for students to improve their performance is to develop following
learning skills and styles which are: Listening, Reading, Speaking and Writing. Different people
exhibit their reliance on different types of skills. Some are good reader while others are good
speaker, listener and writer or in some good combination of these skills. Though all four types of
skills are considered equally important in personality development and performance of an
individual yet if we need to prioritize for students it is the writing skills which are of utmost value.
Students cannot translate their potential into actual without having good writing skills. Teachers
and Examiners know and evaluate their student on this attribute as examination is heavily oriented
towards this activity. Therefore students ought to focus themselves to cultivate this type of skills.
On the significance of these skills the recommended article to go through is `Managing Oneself'
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Change Management ­MGMT625
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written by Peter Drucker, published in the Harvard Business Review, March ­ April 1999, and this
can be accessed through the HEC's digital library.
One Important Instruction
Please go through the original text or articles of author referred and recommended at the end of
these lecture handouts, and do not merely rely on video lectures and lecture handouts only. Reading
original article is mandatory and has no alternative, and as redundancy and repetitions stands
essential to enhance learning effectively
Scope of the subject
The subject is of integrated nature related with multiple disciplines and has got diverse and
kaleidoscopic application. For instance this is closely related with other subjects like Strategic
Management, Organization Development, Training or Management Development, Knowledge
Management and Organizational Learning. This is pervasive in nature and is widely applicative
from individual, organization or nation in perspective. From individual's perspective ­ learning
means change in knowledge, skills and attitude. Similarly individual has to manage changes taking
place not only on the job but also socially. Learning appropriate behaviour and role and to strike
balance between workplace and family is the concern of all. The training programmes either formal
or informal are by design managing change whether the purpose is formation of general managerial
values or up gradation of technical skills seek direct application of this course. Similarly with the
onslaught of globalization, structural changes in world politics and rapid transformation on
International economics has made traditional, stable and bureaucratic organization highly
vulnerable. With such type of on-going qualitative changes the foremost objective of organization
becomes its survival and to avoid what is known as organizational extinction. At the same societies
like us are also in transition from agrarian to industrial, rural to urban, traditional to modern all the
more emphasizing the need to study this phenomenon.
Specifically from the organization perspective the purpose of this advanced course on management
is just like the same as that of basic course, principles of management. The perpetual concern of
management is to learn or to manage so as to enhance productivity of a manager or for organization
to achieve its goals effectively and efficiently. Therefore imperative for organization is to manage
changes going on at two levels: one at external environmental level and second is at internal
managerial level. For change at external level means organization to manage change relations vis-à-
vis change in government policies, change in technology, change in customers' preferences or taste,
change in society' expectations. Similarly extraneous change always impacts the internal dynamics
of organization. Consequently organizations have to renegotiate terms with individuals, resource
allocation pattern and budgeting preferences may change leading to restructuring and downsizing
and processes like decision making, controlling and communicating could be centralized. Similarly
the trend could be diametrically opposite given the change at extraneous level conducive for
growth; organization may develop new products, new markets owing to expansion in the market
and industry and as such organization decentralizes its operations. In either case anticipating change
and at appropriate timings moving in the right direction is imperative.
Why to study change Management?
Its answer given by some leading expert of the subject as under
"The next few decades will bring about an avalanche of change and that most people and
organisations will not be prepared for the vastly accelerated pace of change."
Alvin Toffler, Future Shock
(1970)
Here followings variables are highlighted:
-  Rate or pace of Change
-  Quality and quantity of change
-  Individuals
-  Organizations
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Change Management ­MGMT625
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Un-preparedness
-
"If we could understand the ways in which individuals were motivated we could influence them by
changing the components of that motivation process."
Charles Handy, Understanding organizations,
(1976)
Three things focussed here
-  Individuals
-  Changing the components
-  Motivation Process
The underlying theme here is that individuals can be control and their behaviour can be predicted in
a scientific or methodological manner which is the focus of this subject. The focus of subject like
management and change management is how to control, predict and motivate human behaviour for
productivity enhancement.
According to Schein, "Learning that creates stability and culture is different from the learning that
enables organisations to innovate as they encounter changing conditions in both their external and
internal environment."
Edgar H Schein, Models and Tools for stability and Change in Human System, (Society for
Organisational Learning & MIT; 2002)
Here Schein referred to change phenomena defined in terms of learning which are:
-  Learning in stable organisation
-  Learning in changing or innovative Organization
-  Interaction with internal and external environment
This means learning attributes in stable environment is distinct from learning characteristics in
dynamic environment. Change takes place by reconciliation among forces internal to the
organization and external to the organization.
Another popular paradigm to understand change at individual level, because according to one
approach every thing eventually rests at individuals' personality at work as he has to take action.
The three dimensions are:
-  Knowledge
-  Skills
-  Attitude
By this change means change in knowledge, skills and behaviour. It reveals of methods for change
as well. For instance change in the state knowledge can right be there by reading an article or
listening a lecture. Skills means repetition of knowledge or practice of knowledge like certain
disciplines are skills oriented, and one cannot learn without practice, for example mathematics,
accounting or computers (IT). Some level of difficulty is involved in building skills. More crucial is
the third one that is to have positive attitude or behaviour towards work. For instance how to make
or transform an unwilling person to work or learn into a willing one to work or learn. Adding one
more level of difficulty to it, which is how to transform the behaviour of a group from non-willing
to a willing one? The subject change management deals with such issues within the context of
organization.
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Table of Contents:
  1. COURSE ORIENTATION:Course objectives, Reading material, Scope of the subject
  2. BENEFITS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT:Traditional management domain
  3. KURT LEWIN MODEL: ASSUMPTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Change Movement, Refreeze
  4. IMPLICATIONS OF KURT LEWIN MODEL:Sequence of event also matters, A Critical Look
  5. SOME BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS:Strategic change, Logical incrementalism
  6. TRANSACTIONAL VS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Micro-changes, Organisation Development
  7. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  8. LIFE CYCLE THEORY:Unit of Change, Mode of change, Organisation death
  9. TELEOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of change, Mode of Change, Limitations
  10. DIALECTICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of Change, Strategic planning
  11. A DIALECTICAL APPROACH TO ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY AND PLANNING:
  12. LIMITATION OF DIALECTICS; DA AND DI:Overview of application of dialectics
  13. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  14. APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY:Managerial focus
  15. FURTHER APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES:Criticism
  16. GREINER’S MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL– EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION
  17. GROWTH RATE OF THE INDUSTRY:CREATIVITY, DIRECTION, DELEGATION
  18. COORDINATION:COLLABORATION, The Crisis
  19. ORGANISATION ECOLOGY:Structural Inertia, Internal Structural Arrangements, External Factors
  20. CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL SPECIES:Extent of Environmental Selection, Determinants of Vital Rates,
  21. FOOTNOTES TO ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE:Stable Processes of Change, Rule Following, Conflict
  22. SOME COMPLEXITIES OF CHANGE:Superstitious Learning, Solution Driven Problems
  23. ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION:The Entrepreneurial problem, The Administrative Problem
  24. PROSPECTORS:Analyzer, Reactors, Adaptation and Strategic Management
  25. SKELETAL MODEL OF ADAPTATION:Determinants of Adaptive ability, The Process of Adaptation
  26. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Nature of Change, The Importance of Context, Force field Analysis
  27. Management Styles and Roles:Change Agent Roles, Levers for managing strategic Change
  28. SYMBOLIC PROCESSES:Political Processes, COMMUNICATING CHANGE, Change Tactics
  29. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Pettigrew & Whipp’s Typology, Context on X-axis (Why of change)
  30. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Attributes of SOC Model, Implications for Management
  31. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Flow of Information, Recruitment, SOC Process
  32. Determinants of a Successful Change Management:Environmental, Management Orientation, Management Orientation
  33. Higgins 08 S Model – An Adaptation from Waterman’s Seven S model:Strategy, Systems and Processes, Resources
  34. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  35. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  36. WHY IMPLEMENTING STRATEGIC CHANGE IS SO DIFFICULT?:Change Typology, Technical Change
  37. IMPLEMENTATION APPROACHES:Attributes of incremental change,
  38. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  39. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Definition of Leadership, Follower Work Facilitation
  40. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Recognize the challenge
  41. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  42. IMPLEMENTATION: PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL:Features of Radical Change, Theory of P-E model
  43. CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION: OD MODELS:The Transactional Factors
  44. CULTURE, VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Significance and Role of Values, Values Compete
  45. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES, CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Issues in Change Management