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Principles of Management

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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
VU
Session 15.43
COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS
EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
As organizational workforces become more and more diverse and widespread throughout the world,
communication issues increase in importance.
Organizational communication network
It is the pattern of information flow among task group members.
Five major network structures have been identified.
1.
The three centralized networks are structured so that most messages must flow
through a pivotal person in the network.
a.
In the wheel network, all messages must flow through the individual at
the center of the wheel.
b.
In the chain network, some members can communicate with more than
one member of the network, but the individual in the center of the chain
still tends to control the messages.
c.
In the Y network, the member at the fork of the "Y" usually becomes the
central person in the network.
2.
The two decentralized networks permit freer communication among the various
members.
a.
In the circle network, each member can communicate with the individual
on either side.
b.
In the star network, each member can communicate with any other
member.
3.
Some general differences have been found between the centralized and the
decentralized types of networks.
a.
Effective performance is a function of type of network and type of tasks
undertaken.
1)
The centralized networks were usually faster and more accurate at
performing simple, routine tasks.
2)
The decentralized networks were usually faster and more accurate
at performing complex tasks.
b.
Group moral in the decentralized networks was consistently higher than
in the centralized, regardless of task assignment.
Organizational communication channels
A.
Communication channels are various patterns of organizational communication flow
that represent potential established conduits through which managers and other
organization members can send and receive information.
B.
Vertical communication is a communication that flows from a higher level to one or
more lower levels in the organization.
1.
Downward communication is a vertical communication that flows from a higher level to one or
more lower levels in the organization.
a.
Most downward communication involves information in one of five categories:
1)
Job instructions related to specific tasks.
2)
Job rationales explaining the relationship between a task and other
organizational tasks.
3)
Procedures and practices of the organization.
4)
Feedback on individual performance on assigned tasks.
5)
Efforts to encourage a sense of mission and dedication to the goals of the
organization.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
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b.
Downward communication is prone to distortion.
1)
Faulty message transmission may occur because of sender carelessness,
poor communication skills, and the difficulty of encoding a message for a
number of receivers.
2)
Overuse of one-way communication methods means that manager get no
feedback
3)
Filtering of communication may occur through withholding, screening, or
manipulating information to enhance personal power.
c.
The effectiveness of downward communication can be increased by using multiple
channels, by repeating the message, and by encouraging feedback.
2.
Upward communication is the vertical flow of communication from a lower level to one or more
higher levels in the organization.
a.
Forms of upward communication include individual and group meetings
with superiors, memos and reports, suggestion systems, grievance
procedures, and employee attitude surveys.
b.
The information disseminated through upward communication typically
pertains to:
1)
Progress of current work projects
2)
Serious unsolved problems and situations in which subordinates
need help from superiors.
3)
New developments arising within or affecting the work unit or
organization suggestions for improvements and innovations.
4)
Employee attitudes, morale, and efficiency
c.
Upward communication can be distorted.
1)
Subordinates filter information that they send upward.
2)
Managers do not expend enough effort to encourage upward
communication.
d.
Management by wandering around (MBWA) is a practice whereby
managers frequently tour areas for which they are responsible, talk to
various employees, and encourage upward communication.
C.
Horizontal communication is lateral or diagonal message exchange either within work-
unit boundaries, involving peers who report to the same supervisor, or across work-unit
boundaries, involving individuals who report to different supervisors.
1.
Horizontal communication can take the form of meetings, reports, memos,
telephone conversations, and face-to-face discussions.
2.
Horizontal communication usually relates to:
a.
Task coordination
b.
Problem solving
c.
Information sharing
d.
Conflict resolution
e.
Peer support
3.
There  are  three  impediments  to  necessary,  work-related  horizontal
communication.
Rivalry among individuals or work units may cause individuals to hide
a.
information.
b.
Specialization may cause individuals to be concerned mainly about the
work of their own unit and to have little appreciation for the work and
communication needs of others.
c.
Motivation may be lacking when subordinate horizontal communication is
not encouraged or rewarded.
D.
Informal communication, better known as "the grapevine," is communication that
takes place without regard to hierarchical or task requirements.
1.
Informal  communication  within  organizations  differs  from  formal
communication.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
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a.
Formal communication is vertical and horizontal communication that
follows paths specified by the official hierarchical organization structure
and related task requirements.
b.
Formal communication relates to position in the organization; informal
communication depends upon personal relationships.
2.
Grapevines can be configured in a number of ways.
a.
In the single-strand chain, communication moves serially from person A
to B to C and so on.
b.
With the gossip chain, person A seeks out and tells others.
c.
When following the probability chain, person A spreads the message
randomly, as do individuals F and D.
d.
In the cluster chain, the most predominant form, person A tells three
selected individuals, and then one of these tells three others.
3.
Grapevines have a number of characteristics.
a.
They are fast.
b.
The data produced ranges from 50 to 90 percent accurate.
4.
Grapevines are most harmful when they carry false rumors and gossip.
5.
Grapevines might serve positive organizational purposes.
a.
They may serve to transmit organizational rules, values, and morals.
b.
They may serve to disseminate organizational traditions and history.
c.
They may help to reinforce formal messages, to test new proposals, and to
obtain feedback about employee feelings and ideas.
d.
They may help to foster innovation by facilitating communication among
various parts of the organization.
How Technology Affects Managerial Communication
Two developments in information and communication technology seem to be having the most significant
impact on current managerial communication: networked computer systems and wireless capabilities.
Networked Systems
1.
An electronic mail system is a mail system that allows high-speed exchange of written messages
through the use of computerized text-processing and communication networks.
a.
Electronic mail has advantages.
1)
It is a time-saver.
2)
It leads to exchanges of information among managers who
previously did not communicate.
3)
Managers tend to receive new types of information through these
systems.
b.
Electronic mail has a couple of disadvantages.
1)
It eliminates the nonverbal cues that serve as aids in face-to-face
communication.
It is easy to vent anger and frustrations over email that would
2)
never be communicated through regular written communication
channels.
3)
It leads to an excess of irrelevant mail.
2.
Voice mail is the recording systems which enable senders to leave messages for receivers by
telephone.
a.
Some nonverbal cues are sent, such as voice quality and tone.
b.
It is particularly suited for short messages that require no further
discussions or feedback.
3.
Teleconferencing is the simultaneous communication among a group by telephone or via
computer using specially designed software. The software is often referred to a "groupware."
a.
Meeting can be held while members are not in the same location.
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Principles of Management ­ MGT503
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b.
Each group member has access to their own computer which is linked to
a network and to an overhead projector.
c.
Messages are anonymous.
d.
Most, and sometimes all, communication is done through the computers.
e.
These systems have incredibly high speeds and, usually, very high success
rates.
4.
Videoconferencing is the holding of meetings with individuals in two or more locations by means
of closed-circuit television.
1)
It is synchronous, meaning that senders and receivers can engage in
simultaneous communication of the type associated with face-to-face
conversation.
2)
It is fast.
5.
Electronic data interchange (EDI) is a way for organizations to exchange standard business
transaction documents, such as invoices or purchase orders, using direct computer-to-computer networks.
6.
Intranet systems are organizational communication networks that use Internet technology and are
accessible only by organizational employees.
7.
Extranet systems are organizational communication networks that use Internet technology and
allow authorized users inside the organization to communicate with certain outsiders such as customers and
vendors.
Wireless Capabilities
Wireless communication depends on signals sent through air or space without any physical connection
using things such as microwave signals, satellites, radio waves and radio antennas, or infrared light rays.
How Information Technology Affects Organizations
1.
Communication and the exchange of information among organizational members are no longer
constrained by geography or time.
2.
However, managers must not forget to address the psychological drawbacks such as the cost of an
employee being constantly accessible, pressure to "check in" even during off hours, and the separation of
work lives and personal lives.
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Table of Contents:
  1. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MANAGEMENT:The Egyptian Pyramid, Great China Wall
  2. MANAGEMENT AND MANAGERS:Why Study Management?
  3. MANAGERIAL ROLES IN ORGANIZATIONS:Informational roles, Decisional roles
  4. MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS I.E. POLCA:Management Process, Mistakes Managers Make
  5. MANAGERIAL LEVELS AND SKILLS:Middle-level managers, Top managers
  6. MANAGEMENT IDEAS: YESTERDAY AND TODAY, Anthropology, Economics
  7. CLASSICAL VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Scientific management
  8. ADMINISTRATIVE VIEW OF MANAGEMENT:Division of work, Authority
  9. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OF MANAGEMENT:The Hawthorne Studies
  10. QUANTITATIVE, CONTEMPORARY AND EMERGING VIEWS OF MANAGEMENT
  11. SYSTEMíS VIEW OF MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION:Managing Systems
  12. ANALYZING ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
  13. 21ST CENTURY MANAGEMENT TRENDS:Organizational social Responsibility
  14. UNDERSTANDING GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT WTO AND SAARC
  15. DECISION MAKING AND DECISION TAKING
  16. RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Models of Decision Making
  17. NATURE AND TYPES OF MANAGERIAL DECISIONS:Decision-Making Styles
  18. NON RATIONAL DECISION MAKING:Group Decision making
  19. GROUP DECISION MAKING AND CREATIVITY:Delphi Method, Scenario Analysis
  20. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-I:Methods of Forecasting, Benchmarking
  21. PLANNING AND DECISION AIDS-II:Budgeting, Scheduling, Project Management
  22. PLANNING: FUNCTIONS & BENEFITS:HOW DO MANAGERS PLAN?
  23. PLANNING PROCESS AND GOAL LEVELS:Types of Plans
  24. MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVE (MBO):Developing Plans
  25. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT -1:THE IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
  26. STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT - 2:THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  27. LEVELS OF STRATEGIES, PORTERíS MODEL AND STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT (BCG) AND IMPLEMENTATION
  28. ENTREPRENEURSHIP MANAGEMENT:Why Is Entrepreneurship Important?
  29. ORGANIZING
  30. JOB DESIGN/SPECIALIZATION AND DEPARTMENTALIZATION
  31. SPAN OF COMMAND, CENTRALIZATION VS DE-CENTRALIZATION AND LINE VS STAFF AUTHORITY
  32. ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN AND ORGANIC VS MECHANISTIC VS VIRTUAL STRUCTURES
  33. LEADING AND LEADERSHIP MOTIVATING SELF AND OTHERS
  34. MASLOWíS NEEDS THEORY AND ITS ANALYSIS
  35. OTHER NEED AND COGNITIVE THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
  36. EXPECTANCY, GOAL SETTING AND RE-ENFORCEMENT THEORIES
  37. MOTIVATING KNOWLEDGE PROFESSIONALS LEADERSHIP TRAIT THEORIES
  38. BEHAVIORAL AND SITUATIONAL MODELS OF LEADERSHIP
  39. STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP MODELS
  40. UNDERSTANDING GROUP DYNAMICS IN ORGANIZATIONS
  41. GROUP CONCEPTS, STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT AND TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
  42. UNDERSTANDING MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  43. COMMUNICATION NETWORKS AND CHANNELS EFFECT OF ICT ON MANAGERIAL COMMUNICATION
  44. CONTROLLING AS A MANAGEMENT FUNCTION:The control process
  45. CONTROLLING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE THROUGH PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY