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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
At the end of the lecture students will be able to:
-  Understand the factors in organizational communication;
Understand the use of communication in negotiation and
Summarizing the concepts in communication.
Factors in Organizational Communication
As we know organizations have structure and within this structure are roles and relationships
between and amongst roles, communication in organizational structure follows a system. Communication
within organization flows along the structure of organization. These are called formal channels of
communication. Formal channels of communication influence communication in two ways: one, the size
of organization i.e., the larger the size of organization, longer it will take for communication to reach the
bottom of organization. Second, the formal channels of communication can inhibit the free flow of
information between organizational levels and horizontal level.
Other factors that influence organizational communication are discussed below:
1. Authority Structure
Organization's authority structure is the structure that shows the amount of authority a particular
position has. Authority has influence on communication. Status and power differences in the organization
help determine who will communicate comfortably with whom. If the communication takes place between
senior and subordinate, senior will communicate comfortably with subordinate. But subordinate may not be
able to do so. The content and accuracy of the communication will also be affected by authority
2. Job Specialization
Job specialization refers to specialized areas in which employees work. For example doctor will
communicate well with doctor. So communication within differentiated groups is easy. Members of the
same work group are likely to share the same jargon, goals, tasks, and personal styles. Communication
between highly differentiated (specialized) groups, however, is likely to be inhibited or difficult. For example
communication between doctor and engineers.
3. Information Ownership
The term information ownership means that individuals possess unique information and
knowledge about their jobs. For example, a darkroom employee may have found a particularly efficient way
to develop photo prints. So this information belongs to this employee and he may not share this
information with others.
Since organizational communication has to follow through organizational structure it is likely to be
filtered or halted at each level as managers decide what information should be passed down to employees
and what information to be kept at the top. Similarly employee may not give all information to mangers
(Upward communication). It is likely to be filtered by middle level managers, who see part of their job to
protect upper management from unpleasant information from below to be passed upwards.
We have just mentioned that information from top down and from bottom up is filtered. What is
this flow of communication called and for what purpose it is used. Communication from top-down and
bottom-up is called vertical communication and communication that flows horizontally between same
levels of employees in organization is called lateral communication.
Vertical Communication
It consists of communication up and down the organization's chain of command. The major
purposes of downward communication are to advise, inform, direct, instruct, and evaluate employees and to
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
provide organization members with information about organizational goals, objectives and policies. The
communication from down-up is usually used for problem solving, grievance handling and maintaining
harmony amongst employee and to determine the performance of employees.
Lateral and Informal Communication
Lateral communication usually follows the pattern of work flow in an organization, occurring
between members of work groups, between one work group and another, between members of different
departments, and between line and staff employees.
The main purpose of lateral communication is to provide a direct channel for organizational
coordination and problem solving. So, it avoids the much slower procedure of directing communications
through the chain of command. The benefit of lateral communication is that it enables organization
members to form relationships with their peers.
One type of informal communication is the grapevine. The grapevine within organizations is made
up of several informal communication networks that overlap and intersect at a number of points-that is,
some well-informed individuals are likely to belong to more than one informal network. Figure 2 shows two
types of grapevine or informal communication . In the situation I person A spreads information to
B,C,D,E,F,G and H. Now each one may perceive information according to their understanding.
Grape Vine
Figure 1
Single Strand II
Gossip I
In situation II information flows from A to B, from B to C and from C to D. When information is
passed from one person to other verbally it is called informal or grape vine communication. This type of
communication has certain disadvantage. e. g. some confidential information can leak out which may hurt
organization objectives.
Using Communication Skills
We each must deal with conflict in our personal lives and organizational activities. Conflict involves
a disagreement about the allocation of scarce resources or a clash of goals, statuses, values, perceptions, or
personalities. Much of the conflict we experience arises from our communication.
Sometimes we communicate clearly, but sometime we don't. But clear communication is essential
part of organizational and life in general i.e., that the message must be put across clearly. Lack of clarity in
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
communication can lead to conflict. Negotiation can help us manage conflicts of all types in more effective
and mutually satisfying way. What is negotiation? Negotiation is a process by which two parties interact to
resolve conflict jointly.
Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
Daily life offers countless examples of negotiation. We negotiate with parents when we ask them to
allow us to go on a tour with friends. We negotiate with friends about which recreational activities to
pursue. We negotiate with our boss about working hour and conditions. According to Lewicki and Litterer,
all these "negotiation situations" are defined by three characteristics. These are:
1. There is a conflict of interest between two or more parties; that is, what one wants is not
necessarily what the other one wants.
2.  There is no fixed or established set of rules or procedures for resolving the conflict, or the
parties prefer to work outside of a set of rules and procedures to invent their own solution to
the conflict.
3. The parties, at least for the moment, prefer to search for agreement rather than to fight
Many factors are important to successful negotiating. The actual negotiation process depends on:
1. whether the parties see their interests as depending on each other
2.  The extent of trust or distrust between the parties;
3.  Each party's ability to communicate clearly and to persuade or coerce the other party to accept
its point of view;
4. The personalities and idiosyncrasies of the actual people involved; and
5.  The goals and interests of the parties.
Guidelines for Negotiations
For negotiations to be successful managers must keep in view the following:
Have a set of clear objectives on every bargaining item;
Do not hurry;
Be well prepared with data;
Maintain flexibility in your position;
Be a good listener
To sum up negotiations help reduce conflict and creates harmony in relationship. Communication
acts as the thread that makes negotiations successful.
Interlink age.
Motivation, Leadership, teamwork Communication and Negotiation complement each other. A
leader requires all these skills which help him to keep team together. Figure 2 illustrates this relationship.
Interrelationship of Communication and Managerial functions.
Figure 2
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
Authority structure:
Hierarchical structure of organization wherein each level and
position has authority to get work done.
It is job specialization where in each job is different from other
with respect to its specialization.
Information ownership:
Each employee according to the position he/she is holding has
some information/knowledge related to the job.
Process by which two parties resolve conflict jointly and both
parties get something in return.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management