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Change Management

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Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
LESSON # 20
CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL SPECIES
Another major issue is the classification of organizational specie. Like biology it emphasizes
population within a species as unit of analysis. But then the problem is what characterizes an
organizational form (Specie)? Hannan and Freeman state, "An organization form is a blue print for
organizational action, for transforming inputs into out puts." The blue print can usually be inferred
by examining any of the following:
·  Formal structure of the organization in the narrow sense, that is through written rules of
operations
·  Pattern of activity within the organization- what actually gets done by whom.
·  Normative order- the ways of organizing that are defined as right and proper by both
members and relevant sectors of the environment
Ulrich defines form as a "legally defined entity" with a population of firms consisting of similar
competencies, structures and strategies. Similarly organization form can be determined according to
other criteria, for e.g. technology, industry grouping and product.
2. Extent of Environmental Selection
The population ecology model stress that the environment determines the distribution and form of
organization through selection. Here environment in a biological sense is not a objective
phenomenon. Biologists refer to a very interesting phenomenon of environmental niche. The
environmental niche in an environment perceived by ANT is clearly different from that perceived
by an ELEPHANT; minor changes in an environment may spell the demise of population of ANTS
but be unnoticed by an ELEPHANT. In the same way the environmental niches inhabited by
SMALL and LARGE organizations are subjectively different. Therefore different species
(organization) perceive and experience the environment differently. Another thing to be take note
of is that environments are multidimensional and complex, not similar for all type of organization.
Hence environment is different for different type of organizations, while the ecological approach
suggests that one focus one common fate with respect to environmental variation.
Now the question is what is the effect of changes in environment on the mortality of population.
Individual organization mortality may be there out of an accident, incompetence, or rational choice.
So distinction should be there when owners arbitrarily decide to close down the business for
personal or for economic reasons. Similarly owners also set the tone for level of growth and
profitability. Another scholar talked of vital rates of founding and mortality (entries and exit), and
process of founding and mortality of organization. So the thrust of organization ecology should be
the investigation of the leading question, how social environment shapes the following dimensions
of organization:
·  Rates of creation and death of org. forms,
·  Rates of org. founding and mortality, and
·  Rates of change in organization forms.
What is more important to discuss and for further research is the relationship between adaptation
and selection, and determinant of vital rates.
Relationship between Adaptation and Selection
One such empirical study conducted by Carroll found the role of strategy in a way that the timing of
executive succession was found to be and important factor in organization survival. Similarly in
biological sense, adaptability is an individual behavioral phenomenon. Penning stressed the role of
adaptation and according to him, "Organization will maneuver themselves in their environment, so
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Change Management ­MGMT625
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as to acquire optimum external control and will shift their disposition whenever environmental
conditions dictate." To him entrepreneur is a "volitional individual" who enters an environment and
make strategic choices that ensure the best transactions with the environment.
Determinants of Vital Rates
Vital rates means death rates and founding rates of an organization. This leads not only to the study
of large organizations but also of entrepreneurship and small businesses. Here we are concerned
with the following possible determinants of organizational death and inception:
·  Role of competition
·  Institutional constraints
·  Role of government ( for example subsidy, tax exemption given by US government to
Chrysler automobiles thrice in its history)
·  Type of product or industry becoming obsolete
What causes death of an organization? Immediate factor could be attributed to the consistent sales
decline or poor financial performance as the most obvious indicator? However going in depth may
reveal these indicators as symptoms not problems. For instance what about the organizations those
are socially embedded and inter-linked with each other through alliances and network. In Japan
Keiretsu or Chaebol in Korea or big family based conglomerates in countries like Pakistan where
social identities and ties are more important than technically or transaction driven relationship.
Therefore when social ties (death of a network) cease to be effective hastens the death of an
organization. Similarly if central or lynch pin organization may forcibly closed, reorganized or
dissolved, the constituent organization will have to face a drift. Finally the big issue in ecology
school is the issue of diversified organization (un-related diversification) or huge conglomerates
who dominate the international business; are they equally affected by environment or laws of
natural selection.
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Table of Contents:
  1. COURSE ORIENTATION:Course objectives, Reading material, Scope of the subject
  2. BENEFITS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT:Traditional management domain
  3. KURT LEWIN MODEL: ASSUMPTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Change Movement, Refreeze
  4. IMPLICATIONS OF KURT LEWIN MODEL:Sequence of event also matters, A Critical Look
  5. SOME BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS:Strategic change, Logical incrementalism
  6. TRANSACTIONAL VS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Micro-changes, Organisation Development
  7. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  8. LIFE CYCLE THEORY:Unit of Change, Mode of change, Organisation death
  9. TELEOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of change, Mode of Change, Limitations
  10. DIALECTICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of Change, Strategic planning
  11. A DIALECTICAL APPROACH TO ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY AND PLANNING:
  12. LIMITATION OF DIALECTICS; DA AND DI:Overview of application of dialectics
  13. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  14. APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY:Managerial focus
  15. FURTHER APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES:Criticism
  16. GREINER’S MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL– EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION
  17. GROWTH RATE OF THE INDUSTRY:CREATIVITY, DIRECTION, DELEGATION
  18. COORDINATION:COLLABORATION, The Crisis
  19. ORGANISATION ECOLOGY:Structural Inertia, Internal Structural Arrangements, External Factors
  20. CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL SPECIES:Extent of Environmental Selection, Determinants of Vital Rates,
  21. FOOTNOTES TO ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE:Stable Processes of Change, Rule Following, Conflict
  22. SOME COMPLEXITIES OF CHANGE:Superstitious Learning, Solution Driven Problems
  23. ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION:The Entrepreneurial problem, The Administrative Problem
  24. PROSPECTORS:Analyzer, Reactors, Adaptation and Strategic Management
  25. SKELETAL MODEL OF ADAPTATION:Determinants of Adaptive ability, The Process of Adaptation
  26. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Nature of Change, The Importance of Context, Force field Analysis
  27. Management Styles and Roles:Change Agent Roles, Levers for managing strategic Change
  28. SYMBOLIC PROCESSES:Political Processes, COMMUNICATING CHANGE, Change Tactics
  29. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Pettigrew & Whipp’s Typology, Context on X-axis (Why of change)
  30. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Attributes of SOC Model, Implications for Management
  31. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Flow of Information, Recruitment, SOC Process
  32. Determinants of a Successful Change Management:Environmental, Management Orientation, Management Orientation
  33. Higgins 08 S Model – An Adaptation from Waterman’s Seven S model:Strategy, Systems and Processes, Resources
  34. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  35. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  36. WHY IMPLEMENTING STRATEGIC CHANGE IS SO DIFFICULT?:Change Typology, Technical Change
  37. IMPLEMENTATION APPROACHES:Attributes of incremental change,
  38. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  39. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Definition of Leadership, Follower Work Facilitation
  40. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Recognize the challenge
  41. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  42. IMPLEMENTATION: PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL:Features of Radical Change, Theory of P-E model
  43. CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION: OD MODELS:The Transactional Factors
  44. CULTURE, VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Significance and Role of Values, Values Compete
  45. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES, CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Issues in Change Management