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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
Lecture 4 is continuation of the evolution of public administration & management. At the end of
the lecture students will be able to understand:-
1. Human relations school and the work of the main contributors
Contributors of This Approach
The main contributors to human relation schools were Elton Mayo, Chester I. Barnard and Herbert
The Human Relations School was the response to Classical School. Those who believed in the
assumptions of classical school ignored the human element in the organizations. They looked at human
beings as mechanical devises. Initially the methods of Classical Schools worked, and then gradually these
stopped giving intended results.
Human relations theory has diverse tradition of models, techniques, research findings, and ideas
that often trace their roots back to the Hawthorne Experiments.
Hawthorne studies
Elton Mayo, Roethlisberger and other undertook the famous experiment at Hawthorne plant of the
Western Electric Company at Cicero, Illinois, USA, between1927­1932. Before that from 1924 to 1927, the
National Research Council (USA) did study in collaboration with Western Electric Company to determine
the effect of illumination and other conditions on workers and their productivity
Researchers conducting the experiments at the Hawthorne Plant of Western Electric Company
placed two groups of employees doing the same work into separate rooms.
One group was treated as the control, and the second was test group. The control group is one for
which the variables like light, temperature and working conditions are not changed. The test group is one
for which the variables like light temperature etc., are changed. The test group in the Hawthorne
Experiment was exposed to various experimental changes such as increased lighting, decreased lighting, rest,
pauses, and so on. For the test group the light was gradually decreased. It was decreased to the extent that it
was as little as moonlight.
The researchers of Western Electric Company expected the experiments to lead to different levels
of performance for the experimental (control) group, and for the test group. To the amazement of the
researchers, both groups increased their performance.
The Researchers concluded that the experimental design was problematic, which allowed
extraneous factors to enter the design that led to these unanticipated results. What Mayo and his colleagues
found that employees in the groups were treated as special. They were given attention by management,
separated from other employees, and encouraged to perform. They found in general that improvements in
productivity were due to social factors as morale, good relations with managers and members of group.
Employees who are given attention by management, who are treated as special, and who perceive their work
as significant can become highly motivated and thus become more productive. This phenomenon arising
basically from people being "noticed" is called Hawthorne effect. What the Hawthorne studies emphasized
that organizations are not just machines & tools but are also social systems.
Chester I. Barnard
Chester I Bernard wrote the most influential book entitled "The Function of the Executive". He
was the president of Bell Telephone Company in New Jersey, USA from 1927 to 1948. Barnard was much
influenced by Mayo and others of Human Relation Schools. His analysis of the manager was that the
manager has to understand the behaviour of people in organization and maintain a system of cooperative
effort in formal organizations. In his book he emphasized the following:
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
He focused on the social implications (aspects) of organization. In response to Scientific
Management Theory, Barnard added the human component to the work situation.
He argued that the manager's role included gaining cooperation, defining purposes, and providing a
system of communication.
He believed that the subordinate was the ultimate source of authority; he or she chooses whether to
accept or reject orders given by the manager.
According to him subordinates had three zones or range of orders that workers will operate under:
The zone of rejection,
The zone of acceptance,
The zone of indifference
The Three Zones of Employees
According to Bernard If employees are managed property, the zone of acceptance can extend into
the zone of indifference, thereby increasing the worker's tolerance for the manager's orders.
If managed inappropriately the zone of indifference will turn into the zone of rejection, thereby
decreasing the worker's tolerance for the manager's orders.
Barnard believed that organizations could be improved by the adoption of:
A cooperative attitude between functional units (worker & managers)
Interdepartmental instruction (coordination among departments)
The cross training of personnel (training of employee from different departments of the
Herbert Simon (1916 ­ 2001)
Herbert Simon was influenced by Bernard's work and his focus in the organization was human
behaviour particularly focusing on decision making. He pointed out that Classical School focused on
rational processes of increasing output, ignoring that human beings have limited cognition and knowledge
of complex problems.
According to him group behavior requires not only the adoption of correct decisions, but also the
adoption by all members of the group of the same decisions.
According to Herbert Alexander Simon organizations are important because it:-
It provides the environments and structure that mold and develop personal qualities and habits
Provides those in responsible positions with the means for exercising authority and influence over
Structures communications, determines the environments of information in which decisions are
The major contribution of Simon was to the understanding of decision making in organization and
artificial intelligence. Simon got Nobel Prize in Economics in 1978. (For his work see:
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
Illumination experiment:
the experiment conducted at Hawthorne Electric Plant
to study the group behaviour on performance.
Hawthorne effect:
when group receives attention from supervisor
output per worker
Human Relations School:
the view that human behaviour (group) has important
influence  on  productivity  and  performance  of
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management