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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
VU
LESSON 03
CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS ­ I
At the end of the lecture the students will be able to understand:-
The work of Classical school
Scientific management concepts like efficiency
The concept of Weber's bureaucracy
Henri Fayol's General Principles of Management
The concepts in Human Relation Approach
As mentioned early the main contributors to the classical thought are:-
Woodrow Wilson
Leonard D. White
W. F. Willoughby
Fredrick Winslow Taylor
Henry L. Gantt
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
Max Weber
Henri Fayol
The work of Max Weber, Henry L. Gantt, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and Henry Fayol will be
discussed.
In the last lecture we made effort to understand Taylor's scientific management and the underlying
assumptions. We also tried to see the Results of his experiment.
Henry L GANTT
Gantt also belongs to the classical school, because he was also trying to focus on efficiency and
maximization of output. He emphasized the need for developing mutuality of interests between
management and labour, which mean a "harmonious cooperation," between both. He asserted:
That in all problems of management the human element is the most important."
The importance of time, as well as cost, in planning and controlling work
This led eventually to the famous Gantt chart, (Figure below) which is basis of such modern
techniques as the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT).
This chart enables managers to break work in task and then determine to how much time and
resources will be required to complete each task.
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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Gantt chart
GANTT CHART - 3 MONTH TIME LINE
January
Fe bruary
March
Tas ks
Week
Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 1
Week 2 We ek 3 Week 4
Week 2 Wee k 3 Week 4
1
Form BPM team
Identify problem
Map process
Identify causes
Analyze causes
Develop improvement plan
Set budget
Get approval
Collect data
Analyze data
Develop improved process
Get approval
Implement process
Document improved process
Train staff
Key Dates
KE Y
1/7  Form team
2/14
All data collected
1/9  Identify problem
2/21
All data analyzed
Milestone marker - start
1/14  Map process
3/7
Mapped improved process
1/20  Identify causes
3/12
New process map approved
Milestone marker - end
1/27  Develop improvement plant
3/21
New process implemented
1/29  Set budget
3/28
Staff trained
Gantt bar
1/30  Budget and plan approved
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth strongly supported the ideas of Taylor. (Frank and Lillian were husband
and wife). Gilbreth became interested in wasted motions in work. He observed the work of bricklayers and
said that it can be reduced from 18 to 5 movements. He met Taylor in 1907 and combined his ideas with
Taylor to improve productivity of workers. Frank and Lillian Gilberth emphasized the following:-
Application of scientific-management principles (time and motion study)
The need to understand workers personalities and needs
Theory of Bureaucracy
Max Weber (1864-1920)
Max Weber was a lawyer who got interested in the social aspects of organizations. During his time
markets were booming and his life long work on the study of organizations led to believe that specific kind
of organizations called "bureau" (desk), will help in the growth of markets. He gave following main
characteristics of the bureaucracy.
General Characteristics
 Hierarchy of authority
 Impersonality
 Written rules and documents
Middle
 Promotion based on achievement
 Specialized division of labor
Bottom
 Efficiency
Figure
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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Hierarchy of Authority
 Hierarchy is the various levels in the Organization.
Authority
Authority is the ability to exercise influence over a group of people. As shown in the figure a
hierarchical organization looks like Pyramid.
Weber distinguished three main types of authority:
1. Traditional Authority: The authority that one inherits, e.g. the son of king will be the future king. In
traditional societies the authority is transmitted.
2. Charismatic: It is the authority that one possesses because of one's personal traits and abilities. E.g.
TV artist, sports stars.
3. Rational-legal Authority: It is the authority that is acquired as a result of a position. E.g. Policeman
has authority because of the position.
One may posses a mix of these above authorities.
Impersonality
The official is provided all equipment to carry out his duties; he does not own the "means of
administration." Activities are completed impersonally, which means that the `self' of individual is not
involved in the work.
Written Rules and Documents
Bureaucracy demands that the written rules of the organization be strictly followed and that the
officials remain loyal. All the work in organization is written. Compliance is to the written instructions.
Promotion Based on Achievement
Bureaucracy requires the tasks assigned to an official performed and completed in an efficient and
effective manner, and promotion is based on the level of skill and ability of the official.
Specialization/ Division of Labour
Each person should perform a given and assigned task
Example:
1. A person assigned the task of typing should only perform that task. He should not be asked to do
other task. If he/she continues to perform the task he/she will develop competence in that area.
2. Pin making: Another example is of pin making given by Adam Smith. If the pin is made by one
person he will take longer. But if the wire is straightened by one person, the other person cuts the
wire and the third person rounds the head of the pin, then the output can be increased due to
specialization.
Henri Fayol
Henri Fayol is called the father of modern management theory. He was a French Industrialist. His
book on `General Administration' appeared in 1916. It was written in French. Fayol found that activities of
industrial undertaking could be grouped in 6 parts
1. Production
2. Commercial
3. Financial
4. Security (protection of property)
5. Accounting
6. Managerial
General Principles of Management
He gave following 14 general principles of management:
1. Division of work
2. Authority & Responsibility
3. Discipline: respect for agreement
4. Unity of command: receive order from one superior only
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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The figure below shows senior manager supervising the work of 3 Assistants. All 3 receive order
from one superior.
Senior Manager
Assistant
Assistant
Assistant
Unity of direction: each group of activities with same objectives must have one head and one plan.
5.
Subordination of individual interests to the general interest: The mangers should work in the
interests of organization.
6.
Remuneration: methods of payment should be fair and give maximum satisfaction to employee and
employer
7.
Centralization: The extent to which the authority is concentrated in one person or dispersed in the
organization
8.
Scalar chain (line of authority) or chain of command
9.
Order: a place for everything and every thing in its place
10.
Equity: justice and fairness on the part of managers
11.
Stability of tenure of personnel
12.
Initiative: keenness to work
13.
Esprit de corps: union is strength (teamwork)
Main Feature of Classical School
The main focus of the classical school was as follows:-
1. The task of administration is not political but technical, i.e. only carry out the will of the political
authority.
2. Its emphasizes is on material and methods instead of human element in the organization
3. It treated people as `cogs in the machines' people in the organization were like other machines and
tools.
4. Focus was to increase productivity.
It improves organizational efficiency and ensures high productivity due to economic incentives to
workers.
Human Relation Approach
This approach started as a reaction to the classical approach.
It was initiated in 1930's with the "Human Relation Movement".
Research and Theory development in the 1950s and 1960s provided further conceptual grounding
to this school of thought.
Research and Theory development in the 1950s and 1960s provided further conceptual grounding
to this school of thought.
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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
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Concepts
Productivity:
increasing output per worker
Division of work/specialization: assign work clearly to one person so that he improves the skills
Authority:
ability to influence others
Impersonality:
"self" on individual is not involved in the work.
Hierarchy:
various levels or tiers in the organization
Time & motion study:
to study the movements of workers and eliminate unnecessary
and inefficient movements
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Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  8. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION II
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  20. PLANNING COMMISSION AND PLANNING DEVELOPMENT:Functions, Approval Authority
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  25. SELECTION AND TRAINING AND PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS:Performance Evaluation,
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  44. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA I
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management