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Conflict Managment

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Conflict Management ­HRM624
Lesson 17
If thou are a master, be some time blind; if a servant, sometimes deaf. Thomas Fuller
(Turning competition into cooperation)
"Problems are only opportunities in work clothes" .Unknown
You are educated when you have the ability to listen to almost anything without losing your temper or self-
confidence. Robert Frost
Features of Cooperation and Competition while in conflict
Features of Cooperation while being in
Features of Competition while in conflict
The conflict is seen as a joint
The conflict is seen as a contest,
problem to be solved.
with a winner and a loser.
This is characterized by open, honest
It is characterized by avoidance of
communication of relevant
communication, miscommunication,
and misleading communication.
Disputants pool efforts to gather
Disputants duplicate efforts to gather
information because they mistrust one
information (efficient in time, money).
another's effort (inefficient in time,
Disputants try to obstruct one
Disputants try to help one another.
It generates feelings of friendliness;
It generates feelings of enmity,
disputants tend to see one another's
hostility; disputants tend to ignore
one another's similarities and focus
similarities and not see differences.
on differences.
Features of Cooperation and Competition while in conflict
Features of Cooperation while being in
Features of Competition while in conflict
The dispute tends to be contained in
Meta-conflicts and beliefs about the
hostile intentions of the other
size and tends not to spread.
disputant cause original conflict to
spread and escalate.
One disputant's suggestions for
One disputant's suggestions for
resolving dispute are welcomed and
resolving dispute are mistrusted by
the other and are seen as a devious
respected be other disputant.
effort to gain the upper hand
(reactive devaluation).
Cooperating with the other gives an
Cooperating with the other feels like
losing face and is psychologically
ego boost.
"Defeating the enemy" becomes more
Disputants tend to be task-oriented.
important than staying on task.
Total productivity is maximized.
Total productivity is impaired.
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Cooperation constructive, competition destructive
Deutsch's second major premise is that cooperation tends to be constructive, whereas competition tends to
be destructive. The many benefits of using cooperation, rather than competition, to resolve conflict follow
directly from the ten major features of cooperation and competition.
Premise 3:
Deutsch's Crude Axioms
Cooperation begets cooperation and competition begets competition. A disputant's perception regarding
whether the conflict is cooperative or competitive will produce conduct that tends to reinforce this
perception. In the other words, cooperation and competition tends to be self ­fulfilling prophecies. This
premise is referred to as "Deutsch's crude axiom". You will recall that one recurring theme in conflict
diagnosis is that conflict participants who are unable to read the minds of other participants, tend to use the
conflict itself as a source of information about their motivations. It is worth noting that, the more objective
information about the conflict is possessed by each disputant, the less the disputant is likely to be swayed by
the other's behavior in the conflict.
Basic idea: If a disputant thinks of a conflict as cooperative, it will tend to become more cooperative, and
if a disputant thinks of a conflict as competitive, it will become more competitive.
Reason: a disputant who thinks his or her interdependence with the other disputant is promotive will tend
to try to help the other in an act of self-aggrandizement, actually creating more promotive interdependence.
But a disputant who thinks the interdependence is contrient will avoid promoting the interests of the other
disputant out of a desire to protect him or herself, thus increasing the contrience of the interdependence.
Competition Cycle
cycle shows the
understanding of
this dynamism
can be used to
conflict into
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Coooperation Cycle
The understanding
of internal
dynamics of
cooperative conflict
can lead to reap
promotive benefits
of conflict. The
peaceful nature of
conflict assures
good quality of life
to the participants
of the conflict.
However, some
individuals enjoy
competition and
Premise 4: It is easier to move from cooperation to competition than vice versa
Deutsch final premise about cooperation and competition is that cooperation is relatively fragile. People
never have perfect knowledge about one another, and, in their fear and suspicion, they tend to set in motion
protective actions that promote competition.
Techniques to transform competitive conflict into cooperative
Here are some of the methods and techniques to transform competitive conflict into cooperative conflict.
1. Choose Language with Care
2. Assign Joint Tasks
3. Expand the Pipe
4. Establish ground rules for civility in communication.
5. Create or focus on a common enemy
6. Point out areas of agreement
7. Focus blame away from the disputant and towards process
8. Prepare "the case"
9. Use trust ­building exercises
10. Set up structure to create sharing of information
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Transforming Competitive Conflict into cooperative conflict
Perception of Contrient
Instead of calling the disputants "opponents"
Language with
call them "Saleem" and "Naila". Instead of
referring to the conflict as "dispute", refer to
it as " the problem we need to solve". Instead
of asking disputants to " state their positions"
ask them to " talk about their goals for the
Business partner disputing over appropriate
Perception of Contrient
Assign Joint
assignment of the venture's profits are
Interdependence and
assigned to interview jointly a CPA to learn
perception of
some steps they can take to increase overall
inefficiency into conflict
Perception of Contrient
Spouses disputing over a property settlement
Expand the Pipe
are encouraged to characterize a payment
as alimony- the wealthier spouse receives a
tax deduction bigger than the tax the other
spouse will have to pay on the amount
received. The overall benefit is allocated
between the spouses, so both are better off.
Transforming Competitive Conflict into cooperative conflict
An ADR neutral requires each disputants
Perception of enmity between
Establish ground rules
to refrain form "bad- mouthing" the
for civility in
other and take the time to guide each
Perception of enmity;
disputant in using the complimentary,
Create or focus on a
hostility; perception of
polite discourse.
common enemy
contrient interdependence
In a custody dispute, the parent's advocate
reframe the issue into problem of how
the parents can convince a mother-in-
law who has created friction in the past of
the merits of a proposed parenting plan.
Point out areas of
Perception of difference in
The disputant's advocate make sure to
values and principles
comment, "so, you agree about that",
each time the disputant mention
something that already has been resolved.
In response to disputant's complaint about
Perception that other
Focus blame away
the other disputant's not complying with a
disputant is at fault for failure
from the disputant and
prior agreement, counsel says, "so those
to progress in a conflict
towards process
arrangement didn't work for you. Let's
work on making some new, more
effective and workable arrangements"
Conflict Management ­HRM624
Transforming Competitive Conflict into cooperative conflict
Minimization of the impact The disputants is encouraged to get all
Prepare "the
of Deutsch's Crude Axiom  the information he or she can about the
factual and legal aspects of the dispute
and to perform in-depth conflict
Disputants are encouraged to
Use trust ­
Lack of trust between
confirm the accuracy of one
building exercises disputants
another's statement. The ADR
professional gently guides the
suspicious disputant into realizing that
the other disputant has, in fact, been
behaving as the disputant would have
believed in the same thing
The mediator requires the sharing of
Set up structure to Tendency to mislead
information to both the disputants. The
create sharing of
mediator ask each disputant to back up
claims about expenditures with receipts
and other documentation.
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION TO CONFLICT:Dispute, Legal Dispute, Call the police
  2. DISPUTE RESOLUTION 1:Positive affect in Negotiation, Alternative Dispute Resolution
  3. DISPUTE RESOLUTION II:Adjudication, Litigation, Mediation-Arbitration
  4. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT I:Pedagogical development, Pressures against Innovation
  5. PRECONCEPTIONS ABOUT CONFLICT II:Cultural beliefs about interpersonal conflict, Why strategies of change fail
  6. CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS:Who Needs to Know About Conflict Diagnosis?, Steps in Conflict Diagnosis
  7. RECURRENT THEMES IN CONFLICT DIAGNOSIS I:The Seven Steps of Social Behavior, Seven steps to diagnose conflict
  9. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT I:Description of Conflict, Identifying Interpersonal Conflict
  10. DESCRIBING THE CONFLICT II:Step 1 for Conflict Diagnosis, interpersonal or intrapersonal
  11. SOURCES AND CAUSES OF CONFLICT I:Main Sources of Conflict, Discussing major sources of conflict
  13. INTEREST ANALYSIS I:Analyzing your interests, Analyzing the other disputant’s interests
  14. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:What are interests?, Tips for Interest Trees
  15. INTEREST ANALYSIS II:Principles and values, Basic Human Needs
  16. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT I, Premises of Deutsch’s Theory
  17. ASSESSING THE CHARACTER OF THE CONFLICT II:Techniques to transform competitive conflict into cooperative
  18. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE I:What is Mistrust,Trust and business,Three levels of trust
  19. TRUST AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE II:Advantages of high trust level, Building of trust
  20. ASSESSING IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT I:Motivation to seek vengeance, Mistrust
  21. ASSESSING THE IMPEDIMENTS TO RESOLVING THE CONFLICT II:Disempowered Disputant, Unpleasant Disputant
  22. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE I:Dual Concern Model, Dominating or competition style
  23. ASSESSING THE NEGOTIATING STYLE:Dual Concern Model, Tactics Used In Integrating
  24. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS:Conflict and Power, Kinds of power in the Relationship Domain
  25. ASSESSING POWER AMONG DISPUTANTS II:Sources of Relationship Power, Context and Power
  26. POWER, CONFLICT, AND BATNA III:Role of Third Party in BATNA, Dealing with Power Imbalance
  27. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT I:Stereotyping, Stereotyping in Interpersonal Conflict
  28. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY, AND CONFLICT:Categories of Diversity Issues, Seven Mental Processes to Prove Stereotypes
  29. STEREOTYPES, DIVERSITY AND CONFLICT III:Individual Difference and Social Category, Cultural differences in values
  30. MEDIATION I:When is mediation required, Processes Related to Mediation, Product of Mediation
  31. MEDIATION II:Important distinguishing factors, More Advantages and Disadvantages of Pure Mediation
  32. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION I:Efficiency Consideration, Conflict Management and Prevention
  33. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MEDIATION II:Quality of Consent, Effects on the parties to mediation
  34. PROCESS OF MEDIATION:Stages of Mediation, Facilitative tactics in mediation
  35. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION I:Characteristics of mediation, Confidentiality
  36. LAW AND ETHICS OF MEDIATION II:Role of ethics in mediation, 8 Dimensions of Ethics in Mediation
  37. ARBITRATION I:Ways to Resolve Conflict, Advantages of Arbitration, Disadvantages of Arbitration
  38. ARBITRATION II:Varieties of Arbitration, Process of Arbitration, Contents of Arbitration Act
  39. NON BINDING EVALUATION:Disadvantage, Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation
  40. NON BINDING EVALUATION II:Varieties of Non-binding Evaluation, Advantages and disadvantages of Non-binding Evaluation
  41. MIXED AND MULTIMODAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION:Six System Design Principles, Extensions of Dispute Systems Design
  42. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS I:Introduction, Necessity of conflict diagnosis, Using conflict diagnosis
  43. POWER TOOLS AND MAGIC KEYS II:Proposed Contents of a Clients’ Interview, Impediments to use facilitative mediation
  44. PANCHAYAT, LOCAL GOVERNMENT SYSTEM, AND ADR, Definitions of Panchayat, Definition of Jirga
  45. SUMMARY AND MESSAGE OF THE COURSE:Definitions of conflict, Negotiation, Meditation, Adjudication