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International Relations - IR

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International Relations-PSC 201
VU
LESSON 03
APPROACHES TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
(CONTINUED FROM LECTURES 1 AND 2)
Approaches to IR
There are several distinct approaches to the study of IR, these include: the traditional approach, the
scientific approach, the behavioural and post-behaviouralist approaches, and the systems approach.
Traditional Approach
In view of the complex variables influencing behaviour of states, the traditionalists focus on the observed
behaviour of governments. They explain observable government behaviour on the basis of concepts like
balance of power, national interest, diplomacy etc. Traditional realists try to understand and resolve the
clashing of interests that inevitability leads to war.
This is an approach to international relations that emphasizes the studying of such disciplines as diplomatic
history, international law, and philosophy in an attempt to develop better insights. Traditionalists tend to be
skeptical of behaviouralist approaches that are confined to strict scientific standards that include formal
hypothesis testing and, usually, the use of statistical analysis.
Traditional theorists regard international relations as a sub-discipline of history and political science. There
are historical, philosophical and legal variants to the traditional approach.
Scientific Approach
Scientific scholars challenged the traditionalist, arguing that IR is too broad and complex a field to be a sub-
discipline of political science. They began constructing conceptual frameworks and partial models of
international systems, and tried to collect and analyze data to refute of validate a formulated hypothesis.
Such theorists focus on statistical correlations between variables like incidence of war and alliance policies
for e.g. While this approach has brought a methodological rigor to IR, it relies more heavily on process
analysis than on experimentation. Even obtaining data is difficult in IR and the units of analysis vary
(terrorism for e.g. is a relative term).
Behavioural Approach
In the 1960s and 70s, scholars began arguing that politics cannot be studied factually without reference to
values. Behavioural approach is informed by socio-anthropological and psychological perspectives. It
focuses on understanding the reasons behind the action behaviour of states and other international actors.
This approach has contributed to understanding how people and organizations of different cultures interact,
the effects of propaganda and stereotypical views on conflict situations and international relations.
It is difficult to determine the behaviour of states, which is the aggregate behaviour of a large number of
individuals and of superimposing authorities.
An approach to the study of politics or other social phenomena that focuses on the actions and interactions
among units by using scientific methods of observation to include quantification of variables whenever
possible. A practitioner of behaviouraism is often referred to as a behaviouralist.
Behaviorism refers to the ideas held by those behavioral scientists who consider only observed behavior as
relevant to the scientific enterprise and who reject what they consider to be metaphysical notions of "mind"
or "consciousness".
Post-Behaviouralist Approach
In the 1980s, an attempt was made to combine normative and empirical approaches to study IR.
This approach can be used to test the validity of the idealists' hypothesis to see if democratic or
authoritarian states are more likely to be engaged in internal conflicts.
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International Relations-PSC 201
VU
Systems Approach
This approach places more emphasis on the complex interaction between and within states, while retaining
a post-behavioural scientific orientation. It does so by focusing on international systems which are
interdependent and interrelated.
These systems range from small systems to intermediate and large systems. The UN system, individual
nations, ethnic groups, individual voters, political parties, MNCs etc. can all be categorized into
corresponding systems to understand the complex nature of IR.
Relevant Vocabulary
Hypothesis: conclusion made on examination of evidence
Correlations: similarities
Aggregate: combined
Variables: factors which are subject to change in different circumstances
Sub-discipline: discipline within a broader discipline
Suggested Readings
Students are advised to read the following chapters to develop a better understanding of the various
principals highlighted in this hand-out:
Chapter 1 in `"A Study of International Relations" by Dr. Sultan Khan.
Internet Resources
In addition to reading from the textbook, please visit the following web-pages for this lecture, which
provide useful and interesting information:
IR Paradigms, Approaches and Theories
http://www.irtheory.com/know.htm
Table of Contents:
  1. WHAT IS INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND WHAT IS ITS RELEVANCE?
  2. APPROACHES TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS: THEORIES IN IR
  3. APPROACHES TO INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS:Traditional Approach
  4. THE NATION-STATE SYSTEM:Further Evolution of Nation-State
  5. THE NATION STATE SYSTEM: BASIC FEATURES OF A NATION-STATE
  6. NATIONAL INTEREST:Criteria for Defining National Interest
  7. NATIONAL INTEREST:Variations in National Interest, Relevant Vocabulary
  8. BALANCE OF POWER (BOP):BoP from a historical perspective
  9. BALANCE OF POWER (CONTINUED):Degree of Polarization, Functions of BoP
  10. DIPLOMACY:How Diplomacy Functions, Traditional Versus Modern Diplomacy
  11. DIPLOMACY (CONTINUED):Diplomatic Procedures & Practices, Functions of Diplomacy
  12. COLONIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM & IMPERIALISM:Judging Colonization
  13. COLONIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM & IMPERIALISM:Types of Neo-Colonialism
  14. COLONIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM & IMPERIALISM:Objectives of Imperialism
  15. NEW INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORDER:Criticism of IEO, NIEO Activities
  16. NEW INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC ORDER:Prerequisites for the NIEO
  17. NON-ALIGNMENT MOVEMENT:Origin of NAM, NAMís Institutional Structure
  18. NON-ALIGNMENT MOVEMENT (CONTINUED):Cairo Summit, Egypt - 1964
  19. NON-ALIGNMENT MOVEMENT:Criticism of NAM, NAM and Pakistan
  20. THE COLD WAR AND ITS IMPACTS - INTRODUCING THE COLD WAR PHENOMENON
  21. THE COLD WAR AND ITS IMPACTS (CONTINUED):Truman Doctrine, Marshal Plan
  22. THE COLD WAR AND ITS IMPACTS (CONTINUED):End of the Cold War
  23. DISARMAMENT AND ARMS CONTROL:History of Disarmament
  24. DISARMAMENT AND ARMS CONTROL (CONTINUED):Other Disarmament Efforts
  25. THE RELEVANCE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
  26. THE RELEVANCE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (CONTINUED)
  27. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS:Need for IGOs, Categorizing IGOs
  28. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS (CONTINUED):United Nations, Criticism of the UN
  29. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS (CONTINUED):European Union, World Bank
  30. THE ROLE OF DECISION MAKING IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
  31. DECISION MAKING (CONTINUED):Rational Actor Model, Group Politics Model
  32. SYSTEMS APPROACH TO IR:Underlying Assumptions, Elements of the System
  33. SYSTEMS BASED APPROACH (CONTINUED) Ė DISTINCT SYSTEMS IN IR
  34. LIBERALISM AND SOCIAL DEMOCRACY:Neoliberalism
  35. LIBERALISM AND SOCIAL DEMOCRACY (CONTINUED):Liberalism vs. Social Democracy
  36. INTEGRATION IN IR:Preconditions for Integration, Assessing Integration
  37. GLOBALIZATION AND ITS IMPLICATIONS:Advocates of Globalization
  38. THE GLOBAL DIVIDE:World Social Forum, Can the Global Divide Be Bridged?
  39. FOCUS ON FOREIGN INVESTMENTS:Pro-poor Foreign Investments
  40. CONFLICT AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION:Components of a Conflict
  41. CONFLICT RESOLUTION:Creative response, Appropriate assertiveness
  42. THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT:Global Concern for the Environment
  43. THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT:Environmental Concerns and IR, Some Other Issues
  44. HOW IR DIFFER FROM DOMESTIC POLITICS?:Strategies for altering state behavior
  45. CHANGE AND IR:Continuity in IR, Causality and counterfactuals, IR in a nutshell