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Change Management

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Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
Lesson # 14
APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY
Thetheory has general applicationvarious functional areas of management likeproduction,
marketing,finance and quality managementetc. Here environment meansmarket and one can
observe the application of mutation concept. Forinstance take the case of electronic industry or
communicationtechnologies as there appears a huge variety of products in a quick succession of
time, and the success of any newtechnological product (variation) is a matter of sheer chance.
Going by this theory it is the environmentwhich plays decisive role or influence in the selection of
forms,processes and practices in organization. It is the environment whichselects and decides the
validity of organization form, process and practices to become effectiveand efficient.
Second evidence we found in the QualityManagement Movement (QMM)which is well supported
by evolutionary theory. For e.g. Total Quality Management(TQM) means, continuous,marginal or
incrementalchanges on day-to-day bases in all functional areas like on customer-preferences,
product-attributes,organising in production as well.Winter, a scholar, whosework on this subject
is quite known, links QMM fromevolutionary economic characterisation of a firm to evolutionary
economic theory. There are three aspects of organizationchanges:
1. Corporate knowledge resides in the organisational capabilities embedded in organisational
routines.These routines do not arisefrom isolated managerial decisions but from a
process of organisational learning. Theseroutines have a large tacit component of
learning.
2. There is no sharp distinction between the firm's technical and organisation component.
Systematic routines may result in creating opportunities forimprovement.
3. The capabilities of a firmare not from universaltechnical hand book but areidiosyncratic
(individuality or personality) outcome of unique firmhistories (evolving)
QualityManagement focuses more on productionprocess than outcomes. Onemajor benefit of QM
is the forcing of the organisation to continue the evolution (changeover time) of itssuccessful
routines and avoid the danger of stagnation in a competitiveworld.
Managerialfocus
It is important to note that by default organisations arecontrol-oriented and autocratic in nature
thereforeevolutionary organization too is transformation of autocratic organization at one time-to-
participative one at another time. Therefore buildingevolutionary organisation (howto?) is
recurringtheme these days as in evolutionary organization flow of authority is upward(and
Weberianconcept of rational top down bureaucracy is no more valid in present times). So the
evolutionarytheorist, instead of reliance on hierarchy, authority, span of control offersknowledge-
orientedorganisation and hence focuses on discovery, application and dissemination of knowledge.
Anotherdistinct perspective of evolutionary theorists is that they tend to incorporate principles of
managementdeveloped from personal experience andobservation (values) andbelieves that resort
to traditional way of authoritymay be wrong and bad application of authority.
It also focuses on the organizationprocesses as well whichmeans continuous improvement in
decisionmaking, communicating and controlling.One such common example can be cited is that of
a zero defect philosophy in context of production.
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Table of Contents:
  1. COURSE ORIENTATION:Course objectives, Reading material, Scope of the subject
  2. BENEFITS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT:Traditional management domain
  3. KURT LEWIN MODEL: ASSUMPTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Change Movement, Refreeze
  4. IMPLICATIONS OF KURT LEWIN MODEL:Sequence of event also matters, A Critical Look
  5. SOME BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS:Strategic change, Logical incrementalism
  6. TRANSACTIONAL VS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Micro-changes, Organisation Development
  7. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  8. LIFE CYCLE THEORY:Unit of Change, Mode of change, Organisation death
  9. TELEOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of change, Mode of Change, Limitations
  10. DIALECTICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of Change, Strategic planning
  11. A DIALECTICAL APPROACH TO ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY AND PLANNING:
  12. LIMITATION OF DIALECTICS; DA AND DI:Overview of application of dialectics
  13. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  14. APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY:Managerial focus
  15. FURTHER APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES:Criticism
  16. GREINER’S MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL– EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION
  17. GROWTH RATE OF THE INDUSTRY:CREATIVITY, DIRECTION, DELEGATION
  18. COORDINATION:COLLABORATION, The Crisis
  19. ORGANISATION ECOLOGY:Structural Inertia, Internal Structural Arrangements, External Factors
  20. CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL SPECIES:Extent of Environmental Selection, Determinants of Vital Rates,
  21. FOOTNOTES TO ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE:Stable Processes of Change, Rule Following, Conflict
  22. SOME COMPLEXITIES OF CHANGE:Superstitious Learning, Solution Driven Problems
  23. ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION:The Entrepreneurial problem, The Administrative Problem
  24. PROSPECTORS:Analyzer, Reactors, Adaptation and Strategic Management
  25. SKELETAL MODEL OF ADAPTATION:Determinants of Adaptive ability, The Process of Adaptation
  26. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Nature of Change, The Importance of Context, Force field Analysis
  27. Management Styles and Roles:Change Agent Roles, Levers for managing strategic Change
  28. SYMBOLIC PROCESSES:Political Processes, COMMUNICATING CHANGE, Change Tactics
  29. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Pettigrew & Whipp’s Typology, Context on X-axis (Why of change)
  30. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Attributes of SOC Model, Implications for Management
  31. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Flow of Information, Recruitment, SOC Process
  32. Determinants of a Successful Change Management:Environmental, Management Orientation, Management Orientation
  33. Higgins 08 S Model – An Adaptation from Waterman’s Seven S model:Strategy, Systems and Processes, Resources
  34. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  35. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  36. WHY IMPLEMENTING STRATEGIC CHANGE IS SO DIFFICULT?:Change Typology, Technical Change
  37. IMPLEMENTATION APPROACHES:Attributes of incremental change,
  38. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  39. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Definition of Leadership, Follower Work Facilitation
  40. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Recognize the challenge
  41. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  42. IMPLEMENTATION: PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL:Features of Radical Change, Theory of P-E model
  43. CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION: OD MODELS:The Transactional Factors
  44. CULTURE, VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Significance and Role of Values, Values Compete
  45. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES, CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Issues in Change Management