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Introduction to Public Administration

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Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
At the end of the lecture student will be able to:
Understand the concept of Administrative Accountability and Control
Understand the types of internal accountability and external accountability
Administrative Accountability
According to Leonard D. White accountability is `the sum total of constitutional, statutory,
administrative and judicial rules and precedents and the established practices by means of which public
officials may be held accountable for their official actions'. It refers to the formal and specific location of
responsibility vested in a person. While responsibility has a personal and moral connotations and is not
necessarily related to formal status and power. Accountability is also defined as the answerability of a person
in organization.
The Meaning of Control
Accountability is a kind of management Control. Control is the process of ensuring that actual
activities conform to established standards and laid done procedures. Control helps managers to monitor
the effectiveness of managers
Figure 1
Basic steps in Control Process
Take corrective
Standards &
Match Standards
Figure 1 shows the basic control process. This process is essential to accountability. As shown in
figure before control process is initiated standard and methods are established against which performance is
measured. Then it is measured or assessed if the performance matches the laid down standard. If it matches
then it is satisfactory performance. But if it does not match corrective actions are taken. Now, this is a
general process of control and accountability. These general steps can be adapted to any work situation.
Types of Accountability
There are two types of accountability mechanism that make organizations to continue to achieve
goals. These are discussed below:
Internal Control: is exercised either by superior over the subordinates within the chain of
hierarchy or by other parallel agencies in the executive branch of government. It consists
of directing, regulating, supervising, advising, inspecting and evaluating. It should be
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
continuously done; without being felt. This mechanism of accountability has positive
results also.
External control, is fitted outside the administrative machinery and works within the
general constitutional framework of the system. It is exercised by the external bodies such
as legislature and judiciary.
Internal Control:
In internal control mechanisms follows methods are used:
Administrative process:- In a parliamentary system, cabinet stands at the apex of the
executive. Prime minister directs the ministers; who are in-charge of their respective
department and are responsible for the efficient working to the cabinet and prime minister.
The whole working of the departments are reviewed by the Prime Minister and his
Hierarchical order:- Every administrative department is arranged on scalar pattern and
executives are organized in hierarchical order. The executives are linked with superior-
subordinate-relationship with clear authority and responsibility. They are accountable to
their respective superiors for their actions and dealings. Thus hierarchy itself a powerful
instrument for monitoring subordinates behavior and for enforcing accountability.
Annual confidential Reports:-The superior officers prepare annual confidential reports
(ACRs) of their subordinates every year. The work of whole year of each public servant is
Budgetary control:- A budget is not only a complete policy statement of the total
activities of the government but it also reflects the aspiration of the people. The Ministry
of Finance prepares budget, and operations of the budgetary sanctions and appropriations.
Administrative leadership:-  It is another means of internal control. Leadership
motivates, and inspires the employees for efficiency. Thus the morale and motivation of
employees depends upon the leadership. The effective leader set examples of high
standards of integrity and performance for his followers. He inspires them for work and
instills in them a pride in work. A good leader is objective ­ oriented and always tries his
subordinates to achieve that objective.
External Control:-
Following mechanism is in place as external methods
Legislative Control: The major instrument of public accountability is the authority of the
legislature to empower, limit, investigate and censure the executive branch. The legislature
enacts Laws, authorizes administrators to engage in quasi-legislative and quasi-judicial
activities, appropriates funds for all administrative programmes, and determines the general
outlines of administrative organization and procedure.
Questions:- The first hour of every day sitting of legislature is known as the question-
hour. This time is allotted for asking and answering questions. Every legislators, after
giving due notice, are entitled to put questions and supplementary questions to the
ministers about the state of public administration. The ministers are bound to answer these
questions. The purpose of questions is to elicit information on the working of
administrative departments.
Resolutions and Motions:- Resolutions and motions are of two kinds i.e. firstly, those
whose object is to censure a particular minister or government as a whole, secondly those,
which recommend some course of action to be adopted. The former leads to dismissal of
the government or ministry. The later is recommendatory, hence it may or may not be
accepted by the government. Members of parliament are entitled to pass resolutions on
matter of general public interest.
Debates and Discussions:- Debates or discussions in the House constitute another
important means for controlling the executive. Houses perpetually go on debating one
thing or other. Discussions, take place over every point of a bill or budget. Every motion
comes under discussion in the house. The inaugural address of the President, the budget
speech, introduction of bill for amendment, introduction of new law, or introduction of
motion or resolution provide opportunity for debates and discussions.
Introduction To Public Administration­MGT111
Committees of Legislature:- Legislatures are unwieldy bodies and can not meet for the
whole of year. Hence, they appoint committees of their own members, who are specialists
in their sphere of activity and keep constant watch over administration. Public Accounts
Committee, Committee on Subordinate legislation, petitions Committee, Committee on
Public Service. These committees gather a lot of material, hear expert evidences and frame
conclusions. Such conclusions, which are formed in the form of recommendations, which
correct the tone of administration, by improving efficiency and quality of work civil service
responds immediately to the recommendations of such committees, because they know
that their opinions are of experts and backed by the full house.
Methods of Executive Control
The executive exercises control over administration through the following methods:-
Policy-Making:- The chief executive along with his cabinet, control the administration
through policy-making. All important policy-decisions are taken by the cabinet in every
country. The departments carry on their day to day business, within the policies laid down
by cabinet.
Budgetary System: It is the main responsibility of the chief executive to prepare budget
and to present it to the legislature. After the approval by legislature, the chief executive
implements it through the allocation of funds among various departments, and controls it
by proper utilization of funds.
Recruitment system:- The third system of executive control works through recruitments
of public personnel. This is usually placed in the hands of an independent recruiting agency
like Public Service Commission.
Judicial Control
Judiciary is one of the important external agency, which exercises control over administration. By
judicial control means the power of courts to keep the decisions and acts, of administrative officials within
the bounds of law. L.D. White explains the importance of judicial control and says, "The system of formal
external control officials and their acts which fall primarily into two divisions ­ that exercised by the
legislative bodies and that imposed by the courts.
The main purpose of judicial control is to determine the constitutionality and legality of
administrative acts of public administrators, and thus to protect the rights and liberty of citizens from the
wrongful acts of government officials.
Types of Remedies
There are two systems of legal remedies against the unlawful acts of government officials. One is
called the Rule of law and the other Administrative law or Driot Administrative; the former system prevails
in USA, England and Common Wealth countries including Pakistan, while the latter prevails chiefly in
France, and Germany and Sweden. Brief description of each is given below:-
(a) Rule of law System:- Theoretically it means that every body high or low, and official or private is
subject to the same law. The public administrator is not above the law, while performing official
duties. Ordinarily the aggrieved party to shall have all those legal remedies against the offending
officials; which are known as prerogative writs,
a process of ensuring the actual activities conform to established
Legislative control:
the control exercised by legislature, through system of question hours,
resolution and motions, debates and discussion.
Hierarchical order:
type of internal control in which individuals are supervised by
Table of Contents:
  1. INTRODUCTION:Institutions of State, Individualism
  2. EVOLUTION OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION:Classical School, The Shovelling Experiment
  3. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS I:Theory of Bureaucracy, Human Relation Approach
  4. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF THOUGHTS II:Contributors of This Approach
  5. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOLS:Behavioural School, System Schools
  6. POWER AND POLITICS:Conflict- as Positive and Negative, Reactions of Managers, Three Dimensional Typology
  7. HISTORY OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION I:Moghul Period, British Period
  9. CIVIL SERVICE:What are the Functions Performed by the Government?
  10. CIVIL SERVICE REFORMS:Implementation of the Reforms, Categories of the Civil Service
  11. 1973 CONSTITUTION OF PAKISTAN:The Republic of Pakistan, Definition of the State
  12. STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT:Rules of Business, Conclusion
  13. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ADMINISTRATION:The Public Interest, Ambiguity, Less Efficient
  14. ORGANIZATION:Formal Organizations, Departmentalization
  15. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization by Enterprise Function, Departments by Product
  16. POWER AND AUTHORITY:Nature of Relationship, Delegation of Functional Authority
  17. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY:The Art of Delegation, Coordination
  18. PLANNING I:Four Major Aspects of Planning, Types of Plans
  19. PLANNING II:Planning ProcessThree principles of plans
  21. DECISION MAKING:Theories on Decision Making, Steps in Rational Decision Making
  22. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM):Importance of Human Resource, Recruitment
  23. SELECTION PROCESS AND TRAINING:Levels at Which Selection takes Place, Training and Development
  24. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:Formal Appraisals, Informal Appraisals
  26. PUBLIC FINANCE:Background, Components of Public Finance, Dissimilarities
  27. BUDGET:Components of Public Income, Use of Taxes, Types of Taxation
  28. PUBLIC BUDGET:Incremental Budget, Annual Budget Statement, Budget Preparation
  29. NATIONAL FINANCE COMMISSION:Fiscal Federalism Defined, Multiple Criteria
  30. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL:Types of Accountability, Internal Control, External Control
  31. AUDIT:Economy, Effectiveness, Objectives of Performance Audit, Concepts
  32. MOTIVATION:Assumptions about Motivation, Early ViewsThree Needs
  33. MOTIVATION AND LEADERSHIP:Reinforcement Theory, Leadership, The Trait Approach
  34. LEADERSHIP:Contingency Approaches, Personal Characteristics of Employees
  35. TEAM I:Formal & Informal teams, Functions of Informal Groups, Characteristics of Teams
  36. TEAM II:Team Cohesiveness, Four ways to Cohesiveness, Communication
  37. COMMUNICATION I:Types of Communication, How to Improve Communication
  38. COMMUNICATION II:Factors in Organizational Communication, Negotiating To Manage Conflicts
  39. DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION:The British Period, After Independence, The Issues
  40. DEVOLUTION PLAN I:Country Information, Tiers or Level of Government
  41. DEVOLUTION PLAN II:Aim of Devolution Plan, Administrative Reforms, Separation of powers
  42. POLITICAL REFORMS:District, Tehsil, Functions of Union Council, Fiscal Reforms
  43. NEW PUBLIC MANAGEMENT (NPM):Strategy, Beginning of Management Approach
  45. MANAGERIAL PROGRAMME AGENDA II:Theoretical Bases of Management, Critique on Management