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Change Management

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Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
LESSON #11
A DIALECTICAL APPROACH TO ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY AND PLANNING
The dialectical approach can be defined in context of organization as: A system may be said
dialectical if it examines a situation completely and logically from two different points of view. The
dialectical approach begins by identifying the prevailing or recommended plan and the data which
were used to derive it.
The question is posed: "under what view of the world this is the optimal plan to follow" In order to
test the assumption underlying this plan a search is initiated to find another plausible and believable
alternative ­ the counter plan.  The principle theme is management must learn about the
fundamental assumption of its planning problem and observe the conflict between plan and counter
­ plan, and their related world-views. Now what happen in real life is that Expert approach to
planning is followed wherein consultants and economist are employed who are too much concerned
with cost-benefit and efficiencies, and by their way technical view promoted. These experts bury
assumption of their plan in trade jargon and statistics. Hence we see that this kind of traditional
approach to planning is devoid of socio-psychological cultural and political implications. Corporate
planner also operates on assumptions but are hidden assumptions in his organisational data and
recommended plan, and his method of presenting can conceal assumptions behind the plan
·
Devils' advocate
In this technique (usually internal consultants) managers play a deliberate role of devil's advocate
while planners present their recommendations like experts. The focus is what is wrong with the
plan and why it should not be accepted? The assumption behind this activity is that truly good plan
will survive the opposition in the form of devil's advocacy. Managers (playing Devil Advocate)
does not develop a new world view rather just criticise massively the plan. The role of managers'
behaviour is destructive rather than constructive. And this may psychologically demoralise
planners' and may result in planners psyche to develop safe plan rather than a progressive one.
·
Dialectical Inquiry
In this exercise each member/participant has unique information, knowledge, experience or
perspective that may be shared via discussion or interaction. The focus in this activity is consensus­
seeking; therefore unlike of Devil's Advocates here consensus building behaviour is important by
resolving decisional-conflict in the group.
Steps in Dialectical inquiry process:
1. A decision making group is divided into two-sub groups, each of which will be involved
in the analysis and solution of the problem at hand.
2. One sub-group develops recommendations and supports them with all key assumptions,
facts and data ­ all of which are provided to other sub-group
3. Now in dialectical inquiry ­ second sub-group develops plausible/alternate assumptions
that negate those of the first, and then uses new assumptions to construct counter-
recommendations.
4. The debate continues until they agree on a set of assumptions ­ and then unite to develop
recommendations
This is different from devil's advocacy as the second group here come up with a formal critique,
expounding flaws as why these recommendations should not be accepted but offers no alternative.
In Devil Advocacy, the first group revises its assumption and recommendations to satisfy valid
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Change Management ­MGMT625
VU
objections of the second group and then presents recommendation for second round of critique. The
process continues until both sub-groups accept the assumption and planning recommendations.
Hence the role of second sub-group differs in each case. Nonetheless what ever type organization
proceeds with dialectical conflict and dialectical inquiry can be used as an effective tool to evolve
corporate and strategic planning
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Table of Contents:
  1. COURSE ORIENTATION:Course objectives, Reading material, Scope of the subject
  2. BENEFITS AND SIGNIFICANCE OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT:Traditional management domain
  3. KURT LEWIN MODEL: ASSUMPTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Change Movement, Refreeze
  4. IMPLICATIONS OF KURT LEWIN MODEL:Sequence of event also matters, A Critical Look
  5. SOME BASIC CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS:Strategic change, Logical incrementalism
  6. TRANSACTIONAL VS. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP:Micro-changes, Organisation Development
  7. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  8. LIFE CYCLE THEORY:Unit of Change, Mode of change, Organisation death
  9. TELEOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of change, Mode of Change, Limitations
  10. DIALECTICAL THEORIES OF CHANGE:Unit of Change, Strategic planning
  11. A DIALECTICAL APPROACH TO ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY AND PLANNING:
  12. LIMITATION OF DIALECTICS; DA AND DI:Overview of application of dialectics
  13. THEORIES OF CHANGE IN ORGANISATIONS
  14. APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY:Managerial focus
  15. FURTHER APPLICATION OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORIES:Criticism
  16. GREINER’S MODEL OF ORGANISATIONAL– EVOLUTION AND REVOLUTION
  17. GROWTH RATE OF THE INDUSTRY:CREATIVITY, DIRECTION, DELEGATION
  18. COORDINATION:COLLABORATION, The Crisis
  19. ORGANISATION ECOLOGY:Structural Inertia, Internal Structural Arrangements, External Factors
  20. CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANIZATIONAL SPECIES:Extent of Environmental Selection, Determinants of Vital Rates,
  21. FOOTNOTES TO ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE:Stable Processes of Change, Rule Following, Conflict
  22. SOME COMPLEXITIES OF CHANGE:Superstitious Learning, Solution Driven Problems
  23. ORGANIZATIONAL ADAPTATION:The Entrepreneurial problem, The Administrative Problem
  24. PROSPECTORS:Analyzer, Reactors, Adaptation and Strategic Management
  25. SKELETAL MODEL OF ADAPTATION:Determinants of Adaptive ability, The Process of Adaptation
  26. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Nature of Change, The Importance of Context, Force field Analysis
  27. Management Styles and Roles:Change Agent Roles, Levers for managing strategic Change
  28. SYMBOLIC PROCESSES:Political Processes, COMMUNICATING CHANGE, Change Tactics
  29. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Pettigrew & Whipp’s Typology, Context on X-axis (Why of change)
  30. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Attributes of SOC Model, Implications for Management
  31. STRATEGIC CHANGE:Flow of Information, Recruitment, SOC Process
  32. Determinants of a Successful Change Management:Environmental, Management Orientation, Management Orientation
  33. Higgins 08 S Model – An Adaptation from Waterman’s Seven S model:Strategy, Systems and Processes, Resources
  34. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  35. IMPLEMENTATION AND STRATEGIC CHANGE: CONSTRAINING FORCES IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STRATEGIC CHANGE (CASE STUDY OF XYZ COMPANY)
  36. WHY IMPLEMENTING STRATEGIC CHANGE IS SO DIFFICULT?:Change Typology, Technical Change
  37. IMPLEMENTATION APPROACHES:Attributes of incremental change,
  38. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  39. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Definition of Leadership, Follower Work Facilitation
  40. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE:Recognize the challenge
  41. IMPLEMENTATION: RADICAL OR TRANSFORMATIVE CHANGE
  42. IMPLEMENTATION: PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL:Features of Radical Change, Theory of P-E model
  43. CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION: OD MODELS:The Transactional Factors
  44. CULTURE, VALUES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Significance and Role of Values, Values Compete
  45. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES, CULTURE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE:Issues in Change Management